MBA management

Meaning and Definition of Learning


Learning is an important psychological process determining human behavior. It is a continuous process and it occurs all the time. Learning may be defined as the sum total of behavioral changes resulting from experience at training. The newly acquired knowledge and experience serve as feedback to the individual and provide the basis for future behavior in similar situations.

According to E.R.Hilgard,”Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of prior experience is known as learning.”

According to Sanford,” learning as a relatively enduring change in behavior bought about as a consequence of experience.”

According to McGhee, “learning has taken place if an individual behavior reacts, responds as a result of experience in a manner different from thee way, he formerly behaved.”

“Learning is the process by which new behaviors are acquired. It is generally agreed that learning involves changes in behavior, practicing new behaviors and establishing permanency in the change.”

According to the Dictionary of psychology, “Learning means the process of acquiring the ability to respond adequately to a situation which may or may not have been previously encountered the favorable modification of response tendencies consequent upon previous experience, particularly the building of a new series of complex coordinated motor response: the fixation of items in memory so that they can be recalled or organized; the process of acquiring insight into a situation.”

Nature/Characteristics of Learning


Characteristics of Learning

1) Purposeful.
2) Result of experience.
3) Multi-faceted.
4) Active Process.

1) Learning is purposeful: Each student sees a learning situation from a different viewpoint. Each student is a unique individual whose past experiences affect readiness to learn and understanding of the requirements involved. For example, an instructor may give two aviation maintenance students the assignment of learning certain inspection procedures. One student may learn quickly and be able to competently present the assigned material. The combination of an aviation background and future goals may enable that student to realize the need and value of learning the procedures. A second student’s goal may result in only minimum preparation. The response differ because each student acts in accordance with what he or she sees in the situation.

2) Learning is a Result of Experience: Since learning is an individual process, the instructor cannot do it for the student. The student can learn only from personnel experiences; therefore, learning and knowledge cannot exit apart from a person. A person’s knowledge is a result of experience and no two people have had identical experiences. Even when observing the same event, two people react differently, they learn different things from it according to the manner in which the situation affects their individual needs. Previous experience conditions a person to respond to some things and to ignore others.

3) Learning is Multi-faceted: If instructors see their objective as being only to train their students’ memory and muscles, they are underestimating the potential of the teaching situation. Students may learn much more than expected, if they fully exercise their minds and feelings. The fact that these items were not included in the instructor’s plan does not prevent them from influencing the learning situations.

Learning is multi-faceted in still another way. While learning the subject at hand, students may be learning other things as well. They may be developing attitudes about aviation –good or bad – depending on what they experience. Under a skillful instructor, they may learn self-reliance. The list is seemingly endless. This type of learning is sometimes referred to as incidental, but it may have a great impact on the total development of the student.

4) Learning is an active process: Students do not soak-up knowledge like a sponge absorbs water. The instructor cannot assume that students remember something just because they were in the classroom, shop or airplane when the instructor presented the material. Neither can the instructor assume that the students can apply what they know because they can quote the correct answer verbatim. For students to learn, they need to react and respond perhaps outwardly, perhaps only inwardly, emotionally or intellectually. But if learning is a process of changing behavior, clearly that process must be an active one.

5) Other characteristics:
Learning involves a change in behavior. This may be good or bad from an organizational point of view. People may learn favorable behaviors as well as unfavorable behavior.

The behavioral change must be relatively permanent. Temporary changes may be reflexive and fall to represent any learning.

Learning is reflected in behavior. A change in human’s thought, process, attitudes not accompanied by behavior is not learning.

The practice or experience must be reinforced in order for learning to occur, It reinforcement does not accompany the practice or experience, the behavior will disappear.

Principal of Learning


Over the years, educational psychologists have identified several principals which seem generally applicable to the learning process. They provide additional insight into what makes people learn most effectively.

1. Readiness: Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn and they do not learn well, if they see no reason for learning. Getting students ready to learn is usually the instructor’s responsibility. If students have a strong purpose, a clear objective and a definite reason for learning something, they make more progress than if they lack motivation. When students are ready to learn, they meet the instructor at least halfway and this simplifies the instructor’s job.

2. Exercise: The principle of exercise states that those things most often repeated, are best remembered. It is the basis of drill and practice. The human memory is fallible. The mind can rarely retain, evaluate and apply new concepts or practices after a single exposure. Students do not learn to weld during one shop period or to perform crosswise landings during one instructional flight. They learn by applying what they have been told and shown. Every time practice occurs, learning continues. The instructor must provide opportunities for students to practice and at the same time; make sure this process is directed towards a goal.

3. Effect: The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It states that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. Experiences that produce feelings of defeat, frustration, anger, confusion or futility are unpleasant for the student. If, e.g., an instructor attempts to teach landing during the first flight, the student is likely to feel inferior and be frustrated.

4. Primacy: Primacy, the state of being first often creates a strong, almost unshakable impression. For the instructor, this means that what is taught must be right the first time. For the student, it means that learning must be right. Unteaching is more difficult than teaching.

5. Intensity: A vivid, dramatic or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring experience. A student is likely to gain greater understanding of slow flight and stalls by performing them rather than merely reading about them. The principle of intensity implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute.

6. Recency: The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered. Conversely, the further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact or understanding, the more difficult it is to remember. It is easy, e.g., for a student to recall a torque value used a few minutes earlier, but it is usually impossible to remember an unfamiliar one used a week earlier.

7. Employee Motivation: Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programme effective.

8. Recognition of individual Differences: Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic, the trainee should b given the opportunity to practice what is being taught.

9. Practice Opportunities: Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained.

10. Reinforcement: It may be understood as anything that both increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of thee behavior that preceded the enforcement. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences.

In negative reinforcement, the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant.

11. Knowledge of results (feedback): Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning.

12. Goal: goal setting can also accelerate learning, particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results.

13. Schedules of Learning:

i) Duration of practice sessions.
ii) Duration of rest sessions and.
iii) Positioning of rest pauses.
All the three must be carefully planned and executed.

14. Meaningfulness of Material: A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. The more meaningful the material, the better the learning process.

15. Transfer of Learning: What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job.

Principle Elements of Learning


1) Drive: Learning frequently occurs in the presence of drive- any strong stimulus that impels action. Without drive, learning does not take place thus it is the basis of motivation. A motive differs from drive mainly in that it is purposeful, or directed towards the specific goal, where as drive refers to an increased probability of activity without specifying the nature of the activity. Drives are basically of two types primary or psychological drives and secondary or psychological drives. These two categories of drives often interact. Individuals operate under many drives at the same time.

2) Cue Stimuli: Cue stimuli are any objects existing in the environment as perceived by the individual. It is common to speak of cue stimuli simply as stimuli or to use the term cue and stimuli interchangeable. The idea here is to discover the conditions under which as stimulus will increase the probability of eliciting a specific response. There may be two types of stimuli so far as their results in terms of response are concerned: generalization and discrimination:

i) Generalization: Generalization occurs when a response is elicited by a similar new stimulus. If two stimuli are exactly alike, they will have the same probability of evoking specified response. The principle of generalization has important implications for human learning. It makes possible stability in main actions across the time .For example, stereotyping or halo effect in perception occurs because of generalization.

ii) Discrimination: Discrimination is opposite of generalization. This is a process where an organism learns to emit a response to a stimulus but avoids making the same response to a similar but somewhat different stimulus. For example, a rat no may learn to respond to the white color but not to the black.

3) Responses: The stimulus results in responses. Responses may be in the physical form or may be in terms of attitudes. Familiarity, perception, or other complex phenomena. Usually however, learning psychologists attempt measurement of learning in behavioral terms that is, responses must be operationally defined and preferable physically observable.

4) Reinforcement: Reinforcement is a fundamental condition of learning without reinforcement, no measurable modification of behavior takes place. The term reinforcement is very closely related to the psychological process of motivation. Reinforcement may be defined as environmental events affecting the probability of occurrence of responses with which they are associated. The role of reinforcement in learning is very important. Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction (reinforcement) will be more likely to recur ; those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort (Negative reinforcement or punishment) will be less likely to occurs.

5) Retention: The stability of learned behavior over time is defined as retention and the converse in forgetting. Some of the learning is retained over a period of time, while other may be forgotten. Extinction is a specific form of forgetting.

6) Extinction: Extinction may be defined as a loss of memory. Extinction of a well learned response is usually difficult to achieve because once something is learned, it is never truly unlearned. Thus extinction merely mans that the response in question has been repressed or it may be replaced by learning of incompatible response.

7) Spontaneous Recovery: The return of response strength after extinction, without intervening reinforcement, is called spontaneous recovery. Spontaneous recovery is not unusual among people when they are confused under stress or in other unusual states. The original response strength of an extinguished behavior can also be recovered when a previously extinguished response is rewarded in an isolated instance.

Learning Process


The various elements involved in the process of learning are :

1) The training/teaching organization.
2) And the technology of training/teaching.
3) The trainer/teacher and.
4) The learner.

All these four elements are important. Each of these can be treated as a system or a sub-system.

i) The training /teaching organization, including the training/teaching group, can be called the endosystem. This system has its own dynamics. The main function of this system is to maximize the motivation for learning by creating the culture and climate conducive to such motivation.

ii) The system of the teaching/training technology is concerned with the mechanics of teaching/training. Methodology and aids help in various aspects of learning. However, the main function of this system is to help assimilation and stabilization of learning through practices and application.

iii) The trainer/teacher is certainly an important person in this whole cycle, and is the main representative of the influence system. Although other elements also produce influence, the main impact is made by the teacher/trainer through his behavior, values, and competence. The way the trainer/teacher influences the learner may determine the effectiveness of learning to a great extent.

iv) The last, but certainly the most important element in the process of learning is the learner. The learner makes use of the other systems. His main function is the development and effective use of processes. Process is the dynamic system of various procedures used in assimilating, internalizing, using, and creating learning. This system may therefore be called the process system.

Another important feature of the inter-relationship among the four elements is that while three elements-the endosystem, the process, and the influence of trainer/teacher-make mutual contributions, the mechanics of learning only receive contributions from the endosystm and the trainer/ teacher while being in a mutual relationship with the process system. This means that the technology of training is not crucial in determining the effectiveness of learning. Because of the glamor of technology, it may draw more attention: but it plays a limited, through important role in making learning effective.

ENDOSYSTEM

The general atmosphere of the training institute communicates much more and with greater impact than what is taught in the classroom. One of the main advantages of programmed learning is that a learner does not feel threatened in committing mistakes. If learning cannot provide challenge, it ceases to motivate. One way to produce a challenge is to encourage new learning. Failure to achieve a goal, however challenging it may be, does not motivate.

MECHANICS OF LEARNING

If the learner knows what he could not learn, and why, learning will be more effective. It is important that feedback is given as close to the learning event as possible. The application of learning implies the development of insight in the learner and an ability to respond to a situation effectively. The learner should develop both, the motivation as well as the skills and capability for self-learning. Learning can be more effective if the learner discovers knowledge rather than getting it from the teacher/trainer. The learner should be helped to develop his own system of self-learning. Learners learn not only from the teacher/trainer but also from one another.

INFLUENCE: THE TRAINER

The teacher/trainer influences the learning situation a great deal. The trainer’s values, general style of interaction, competence, and individual needs matter a great deal. His contribution to the learning process is most vital.

The trainer’s main contribution is through his values. It may be useful for teacher/trainers to examine what values they are incorporating. Since the main role of the trainer/teacher is to influence the learners and their learning process, the question they should ask themselves is what their model of an ideal human being is. Cognitive learning takes place best through enquiry, through the learner’s own motivations.

The trainer’s style is very important in the learning process .One dimension of the trainer’s style is the type of influence he uses. Teacher/trainers can be classified as having a direct influence style or an indirect influence style.

The interaction process between the trainer/teacher and the learner is very important. One simple and useful system of classification for the interaction process is that based on the influence of the trainer. The trainer influences learners in various ways. Direct influence restricts the freedom of the learner, is prescriptive, and develops coping behavior. Indirect influence increases the learner’s freedom, is liberating, and develops expressive behavior.

LEARNING THROUGH TRAINING

Training is essentially a learning process, and studies show there are several things you can do to improve learning.

Make Learning Meaningful: It is usually easier for trainees to understand and remember material that is meaningful, Therefore:

1) At the start of training, provide a bird’s- eye view of the material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning.

2) Use a variety of familiar examples.

3) Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units.

4) Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees.

5) Use as many visual aids as possible.

Make skills Transfer Easy: Make it easy to transfer new skills and behaviors from the training site to the job site.

1) Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation.

2) Provide adequate practice.

3) Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process.

4) Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the job. For example, if you’re training customer service representatives how to handle incoming calls, first explain the different types of calls they will encounter and how to recognize such calls.

5) Provide “heads- up.” Preparatory information. For example, trainees learning to become first-line supervisors often face stressful conditions, high workload, and difficult subordinates back on the job. Studies suggest you can reduce the negative impact of such events by letting trainees know they might happen.

Motivate the Learner: Here are some ways to motivate the trainee:

1) People learn best by doing. Try to provide as much realistic practice as possible.

2) Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses, perhaps with a quick “well done”.

3) Trainees learn best at their own pace. If possible, let them pace themselves.

4) Create a perceived training need in the trainees’ minds. In one study, pilots who had experienced pretraining accident- related events subsequently learned more from an accident-reduction training program than did those experiencing fewer such events. You could illustrate the need for the training by showing videos of simulated accidents. Similarly, “before the training, managers need to sit down and talk with the trainee about why they are enrolled in the class, what they are expected to learn and how they can use it on the job.”

5) The schedule is important too: The learning curve goes down late in the day. So that “full day training is not as effective as half the day or three-fourths of the day.”

Key Attributes of Learning Process in Training


Learning is an Evolutionary process: In a training programme, learning is an evolutionary process. It is instigated by a training activity and nurtured through participation and sharing. It flourishes in an environment of mutual support and encouragement among the participants, with the trainer providing the necessary guidance and direction.

Learning is a product of collaboration: A key imperative for a successful training programme is the establishment of an active and functional bond between the participants and the trainers, based on mutual support and respect. This relationship underpins all learning activities and interaction during a programme. There is considerable investment, in time and effort, from both sides. It is, therefore, necessary that the training team and the participants should have unity of purpose, as both have high stakes in the success of the programme.

Learning process is Unique to an individual: Learning is a highly individual and unique process. The participation of an individual participant in the learning process is determined by the level of intrinsic motivation and nurtured by an environment that encourages him to explore and discover the meaning of training in his work and other aspects of life. Each participant responds in his own distinct way to the same stimulus and environment in accordance with the meaning, the training has for him and the interest the training activities generate. There are other factors also that influence his response— his training needs, his personal experiences, the working environment in his organization and overall perception of the programme.

Learning also takes place at the subconscious Level: In a training programme, while most of the learning takes place at the conscious level, in many cases, a significant part occurs at the subconscious level as well. A participant may not be fully aware of all the learning that his mind gathers and internalizes. a major reason for this phenomenon is that a participant is so intensely engaged in the training activities that he does not have an opportunity to sit back and reflect on the learning. Thus, it is quit conceivable that learning at the subconscious level, is not perceived or acknowledged by the participant during the programme or even soon after a training activity is completed.

Learning has Intellectual and Emotional Elements: Learning is not merely a cognitive process. It has emotional content as well.” The extent to which emotions are involved in the learning process depends on the level of commitment and motivation of the participant. If the whole persona of the participant is involved in the process, there is no superficially and the learning is through and profound. It should be noted that if learning remains at the cognitive level, it may not be translated into behavioral changes. The emotional element plays a key part in the process.

Learning does not progress at a Uniform pace: There are two aspects of this distinctive feature of the learning process. A participant does not learn at an even pace throughout the programme. There are highs and lows in individual learning, depending on personal and environmental factors at a given point of time. It is likely that while in one situation, a participant finds it difficult to comprehend and internalize learning, in another training activity; he does it with relative ease. Also, as each participant learns in accordance with his training needs and interests, there is an element of selectivity of learning. He is likely to learn the most from training activities that he perceives as relevant, useful and stimulating.

Methods of Learning In a Training Programme


Five key methods of learning can be identified. These are:

1) Direct inputs by the Trainers: In a training programme, a key function of the trainer is to provide suitable and quality inputs in the areas covered by the programme. A trainer is also a subject-matter specialist in areas or topics for which he is especially responsible. A trainer is expected to be mentally and professionally prepared to organize training activities, appropriate to the topics or modules of the programme, and make useful contribution.

Inputs by the trainers can take any of the following forms:

i) Lectures or presentations.

ii) Interventions during discussion or other group activities to present varied dimensions of the issues under discussion or a different point of view.

iii) Opening remarks when introducing a new topic, module or a different point of view.

iv) Interventions during the conduct of training activity or method (e.g., after role-play or a field trip).

v) Response to questions of the participants, clarification or elaboration on points raised by the group.

vi) Summary of comments or concluding remarks.

vii) Informal, out-of-session discussions or conversations.

viii) A trainer also acts as a role model for the participants. They learn a lot not only from his training style but also from the manner in which he conducts himself in and out of sessions.

The training team also provides inputs through documents and printed materials, distributed either in advance of the session or after its conclusion. These could be summaries of the inputs, learning outcomes from a session or a module, or specific learning packages.

The inputs by the trainers would generally focus on:

i) Elaborating various theories, concepts on the topics or related issues.

ii) Presenting ideas and viewpoints on different issues that come up for discussion during the programme.

iii) Highlighting issues and analyzing problems to promote discussion in the group.

iv) Bringing out learning outcomes from training activities.

v) Providing information on any aspect of the theme of the programme.

vi) Giving guidelines for effective functioning of the training group or proper organization of training activities.

2) Learning through sharing within training group: In my training programme, especially in in-service programmes, the training group is a powerful source of learning. The wide variety of experience and knowledge that the participants bring with them provide a sound basis for the promotion of the learning process. Group-based training activities are most productive when the objective is to:

i) Develop mental skill:

ii) Facilitate an exchange of views and ideas on specific topics and issues:

iii) Help in critical appraisal of theories and concepts:

iv) Bring out different dimensions of a topic; or

v) Analyze different approaches adopted by the participants in carrying out work-related tasks. Proper guidelines and monitoring is required for all group-related training activities and events. The extent to which this key learning resource is productive and useful depends on the manner in which a trainer handles the activity and facilitates the discussion. Therefore, the role of the trainer is crucial.

The following factors promote sharing in a training group:

i) Clarity on the objectives and scope of sharing. This enables the participants to be specific and focus only on relevant experiences.

ii) Willingness on the part of the participants to share their experience and views without fear of adverse reactions, rejection or any perceived threat to ‘reputation’, i.e., the environment is conducive for free and open sharing.

iii) Their ability to recall and bring forward experiences that are relevant to a particular topic or activity.

iv) The ability to translate their experiences into concepts, principals and approaches which can be aptly put across to others in the group and understood by them.

v) Communication skills of the participants.

3) Learning through practice and exercise: Another key method of learning is through individual or group practical assignments, by doing things. These are not simulated exercise but involve actual work, a physical activity. Participants are given specific tasks or projects to be completed within an allotted time. The training team may organize special projects or activities for individual participants or smaller groups, at the training venue itself, send them to other agencies for placements or for specific projects or even to the field.

4) Formal and Informal Methods of observation: The process involves observing how a person performs an activity or carries out a task, assessing the nature of investment and effort, monitoring the progress of the activity, and evaluating outcomes. It helps in picking out key learning points. In training for trainers, the participants can learn a lot by observing the trainers while they make a presentation or conduct an activity.

5) Out-of-Session Exchange with participants and Trainers: An import aspect of participation in training programmes is the opportunity it provides for formal, out of session interaction and contacts with other members of the group and the training team . This is particularly so in residential programmes. These interactions are an important source of learning not only in training areas but in personal development as well.

Theories of Learning


Various theories have been developed to explain different aspects of learning. These theories, however, can be grouped into several major categories for the focus of our present discussion. As figure 8 depicts. The first major division is among the connectionist, cognitive and socialistic schools of thought. While cognitive interpretations place emphasis on the discovery of patterns and insight, connectionists argue that what humans learn are connections or associations between stimuli and responses and according to social learning theory people learn through different means like observation of others, direct experiences and indirect experiences.

1) Connectionist/ Learning connections: Some learning theorists maintain that learning involves the development of connections between a stimulus and some response to it. That is, the association of a response and a stimulus is the connection that is learned.

A portion of this group minimizes the importance of reinforcement is employed in conjunction with two fundamentally different methods of learning connections: classical and operant conditioning.

a) Classical conditioning: A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Ivan Pavlov. a Russian physiologist conducted experiments to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. A simple surgical procedure allowed Pavlov to measure accurately the amount of saliva secreted by a dog. When Pavlov presented the dog with a piece of meat, they exhibited a noticeable increase in salvation.

When Pavlov withheld the presentation of meat and merely rang a bell, the dog did not salivate. Then Pavlov proceeded to link the meat and ringing of the bell. After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting the food, the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell rang. After a while, the dog would salivate merely at the sound of the bell, even if no food was offered. In effect, the dog had learned to respond- i.e., to salivate- to the bell.

The meat was an unconditioned stimulus; the reaction that took place whenever the unconditioned stimulus occurred was called the unconditioned response. The bell was an artificial stimulus, or what we call the conditioned stimulus. The last key concept is the conditioned response. This describes the behavior of the dog; it salivated in reaction to the bell alone.

Classical conditioning has some important implications for understanding human behavior. Since higher-order conditioning for learning by human beings is important, its implication must be recognized. For example, higher-order conditioning can explain how learning can be transferred to stimuli other than those used in the original conditioning. Another implication of higher-order conditioning is that reinforcement can be acquired. A conditioned stimulus conditioning is that reinforcement can be acquired. A conditioned stimulus becomes reinforcing under higher –order conditioning.

REQUIREMENTS FOR UTILIZING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

If advertisers are to use classical conditioning concepts to influence consumers, several conditions must occur. McSweeney and Bierley cite four conditions:

There should be no other stimuli that could Over-shadow the Marlboro cowboy was always portrayed on a white horse. It is possible the white horse might have over-shadowed the cowboy as a stimulus, thus weakening the association between the cowboy and the product. This is known as the over-shadowing effect.

Unconditioned stimuli should have no previous Associations to other brands or product categories; Assume a beer company decides to use a cowboy in its advertising to convey a macho image to its target group. The campaign would be ineffective because of the association already established by the Marlboro cowboy. This is referred to as the blocking effect.

Unconditioned Stimulus should not be Overly Familiar and should be presented Alone: Consumers could become over-saturated with certain stimuli that frequently appear in the mass media (Known as a pre-exposure effect). Such stimuli are unlikely to be effective as the unconditioned stimulus. For example, the tuxedo has been shown so often as a symbol of luxury that it has probably lost its effectiveness.

Classical conditioning is more effective when the conditioned stimulus is new; consumers have established associations for well-known products. It would be difficult for the company to link its products with a new unconditioned stimulus.

b) Operant Conditioning: A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. Operant behavior means voluntary or learned behavior in contrast to reflexive or unlearned behavior. The tendency to repeat such behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement brought about by the consequences of the behavior. Reinforcement, therefore, strengthens a behavior and increases the likelihood that it will be repeated.

The Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner did research for operant conditioning, skinner argued that creating pleasing consequences to follow specific forms of behavior would increase the frequency of that behavior. People will most likely engage in desired behaviors, if they are positively reinforced for doing so. Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. In addition, behavior that is not rewarded, or is punished, is less likely to be repeated.

Differences between Classical and Operant Conditioning


Classical Conditioning   Operant Conditioning
Responses are elicited from a person (reactive).   Responses are emitted by a person (proactive).
Responses are fixed to stimulus (no choice).   Responses are variable in types and degrees (choice).
CS is stimulus such as sound, an object, a person.   CS is a situation such as office, a social setting, a specific set of circumstances.
Conditioning is implemented before response.   Conditioning is implemented after response.
First we produce a stimulus and then we expect the desired behavior.   First we get a behavior pattern and then either by reward or by avoidance of punishment we reinforce that behavior.


2) Cognitive Learning ( S.S. Learning): Instead of viewing learning as the development of connections between stimuli and responses, cognitive theorists stress the importance of perception, problem solving, and insight. This viewpoint contents that much learning occurs not as a result of trial and error or practice but through discovering meaningful patterns which enables us to solve problems. Cognitive learning involves learning ideas, concepts, attitudes, and facts that contribute to our ability to reason, solve problems, and learn relationships without direct experience or reinforcement. Cognitive learning can range from very simple information acquisition to complex, creative problem solving.

Types of cognitive Learning

i) Latent Learning: Latent learning (sometimes called incidental learning) is learning without reinforcement and is not immediately demonstrated when it occurs. For example, if a student wants a coffee break, wonders where to go, and suddenly remembers a new coffee shop near campus, the student is demonstrating latent learning. E.C. Tolman, a well-known investigator of cognitive learning, suggested that organisms from cognitive maps of their environments, maps that can be used when needed.

ii) Insight: An insight is a new way to organize stimuli or a new approach to solve a problem. A student struggling with a mathematical problem who suddenly sees how to solve it without having been taught additional methods has had an insight. Wolfgang Kohler, a famous Gestalt psychologist, demonstrated that chimpanzees can solve problems using insight. Chimps placed in a cage, with bananas beyond their reach, learned that they could pile up boxes or attach one stick to another to reach and obtain the food. The chimps had not been reinforced for these specific behaviors but learned how to get the food through insight. Once insight has occurred, no further instruction or training is required.

3) Social Learning theory: People can learn through observation and direct experience.

Much of what we have learned comes from watching models –presents, teachers, peers, motion picture and television performers, bosses, and so forth.

Social learning theory is an extension of operant conditioning, i.e., it assumes that behavior is a function of consequences it also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the importance of perception in learning.

i) Attention processes: people learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us, or similar to us in our estimation.

ii) Retention Processes: A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer readily available.

iii) Motor reproduction processes: After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform the modeled activities.

iv) Reinforcement processes: Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentive or rewards are provided. Behaviors that are positively reinforced will be given more attention, learned better, and performed more often.

Training Needs


Employees are the human resources who need training and development. Training makes them perfect where they lack in certain areas like knowledge, ability, skill, potential, etc. These weaknesses of employees need to be identified and efforts should be made to develop them through proper training and development programmes. The success of the training function depends greatly on the correct identification of needs. The spotting of shortcomings among the employees, organizational constraints will provide a base for determining the training needs in an organization. The organization needs and the kind of work to be performed and the knowledge and skills required to do the work are studied through human resource planning and job analysis. The human resource needs in the form of knowledge, skill, potentials can be met through training and development programme. After making the necessary evaluation the training needs are determined. Training needs can be expressed in terms of components such as information, knowledge, skills and competencies, attitudes and values a sound basis for determining the nature of inputs required, by voicing two major concerns:

1) How does each type of training need emerge?

2) How is each type of training need catered to?

WHY TRAINING NEEDS ARISE?

The gap between actual and expected performance, behavior and attitude leads to emergence of training needs. But the main purpose of training is to attain that level of performance, behavior and attitude in employees, which leads to fulfillment of the objectives of any organization.

Thus, training needs arise when there is a condition of requirement to move to particular level of performance, behavior and attitude.

NEED FOR TRAINING

1) To match the Employee Specification with the job Requirements and Organizational Needs : Training is needed to fill the gap between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs by developing and molding the employee’s skill, knowledge, attitude, behavior, etc.

2) Organizational Viability and the Transformation process: For the effective and smooth functioning of the organization it is necessary for the organization to train the employees to impart specific skills and knowledge. In addition, training provides continuity to the organization can be improved by developing the efficiency of transformation process, which is turn, depends on enhancement of the existing level of skills and knowledge of the employees.

3) Technological Advances: The organization should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills (i.e., automation, mechanization and computerization) and knowledge from time to time.

4) Organizational Complexity: Complex organizational situation, which emerge due to the increased mechanization and automation and other related factors calls for training in the skills of co-ordination, integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and expansion. Thus, training solves the problem of organizational complexity.

5) Human relations: Training is human relations is necessary to deal with human problems (including alienation, inter-personal and intergroup conflicts, etc.) and to maintain human relations.

6) Change in the job Assignment: Training is necessary when the existing employ is promoted to the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip the old employees with the advanced disciplines, techniques or technology.

WHOM TO TRAIN? Training is imparted to employees for whom the training needs have been recognized. Training needs can arise for employees at all levels.

LEVELS OF TRAINING NEEDS

The assessment of management training and development needs can be undertaken at different levels of generation.

Individual Levels → Group Levels → Organizational Levels → Sectoral Level → Country Level → Regional Level → Regional Level → Global Level.

1) Individual Level: This is the starting point and basic building block of any needs assessment. Every employee has unique needs owing to the particular combination of his job profile, educational and cultural background, experience and personality. Emphasis on individual needs assessment makes it possible to have development programmes that are tailored to individual needs and aim at results that are visible and understandable to each individual concerned and for which he can feel responsible.

2) Group and team Level: To identify and meet needs, we also have to group employees for the following reasons:

i) While some of their needs are individual and unique, other needs are common.

ii) As mentioned above, employees do not work as isolated individuals, but in groups and teams; this brings out needs that could not be identified in dealing with each individual separately .Also, needs that concern relations and interaction with other employees often have to be treated through collective training and development. Therefore, at the second level, we would deal with groups and teams of employees within an organization. The nature of the management system and process will determine the criterion for establishing these groups and tams.

3) Organizational Level: This level is particularly important for relating management development and training needs to organizational systems, problems, diagnoses, objectives and performance improvement programmes. In practice, most needs assessment exercise take place at organization levels as their components. To meet the need , many organizations design and implement their own management development and training programmes. Typical organizational level management development needs are those related to organizational (corporate) culture. Organizations that have developed a set of shared values, constituting their specific culture, tend to use management development programmes for strengthening this value system, in particular in training newly recruited and junior managers and staff members.

4) Sectoral Level: The definition of sectoral needs may be quite meaningful if a sectoral development policy or plan is being considered, or if a sectoral body (for example, an employers’ or trade association, or a ministry) intends to alert organizations in the sector to their management problems or to imbalances in the managerial manpower supply and demand, and provide a service for dealing with these problems (for example, a spectral training institution or special and hoc programmes).

5) Country (National) Level: In similar vein, we are often interested in common nationwide characteristics and needs of the management population, in planning or suggesting country level programmes or in stablishing national management institutes, centres, faculties or foundations. Typically, country level needs are examined by national surveys and studies. Often, these surveys would also use a sectoral breakdown, differentiate between regions (for example, urban and rural, less or more developed, geographically remote) and consider needs as classified under major occupations or functions (for example, financial managers, marketing managers) that are found in most enterprises.

6) Regional Level: Regional aspects and considerations are of interest if regional programmes, projects or institutions can provide useful guidance and support to governments and provide useful guidance and support to governments and private organizations in individual countries of the region. For example, the European Foundation for Management Development has undertaken several projects looking into the future needs of European managers, and one of the main objectives of a Asian productivity Organization has been to meet training and development needs in conjunction with efforts to improve productivity in Asian countries.

7) Global Level: This is the highest level of generation in respect of training and development needs. A global, worldwide view tends to be taken selectively by associations or institutions involved in exchange of experience, information services or new programme development of the widest international interest. The globalization of world markets, the widest international interest. The globalization of world markets, the current trends in financing business and trade or the progress in information and communication technologies are regarded as factors that will influence management in all regions and countries ; hence the existence of needs, and an opportunity to thinks of policies, progammes and services that are global in application.

SOURCES OF DATA FOR IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS


There are three sources for identifying training needs, although, they are independent sources for gathering the necessary data. It is usually beneficial if they are considered complementary to one another to arrive at a consolidated data of training needs.

The three sources are as follows:

1) Job profile: It is a comprehensive description of all the functions and the responsibilities that a person has to carry out in the course of his job. Job analysis can be undertaken in order to have a realistic and systematic appraisal of training needs. In order to do this, first it is necessary to break up the functions and responsibilities into categories and classify these task/activities on the basis of their relative importance to the nature of the job. Finally, a priority listing of these tasks should be computed. This will help in developing a catalogue of knowledge, skills and attitudes required for effective performance of the job.

The second method is to prepare a comparative study of the performance of those who perform well and those who have not performed up to the mark, to pinpoint on the training needs of those who need to improve their skills.

2) Experience of the training agency: It is very common for organizations nowadays to hire professional training agencies to look into training affairs. The training agencies have both depth and breadth of experience. They have to observe the performance in the unique environment of the organization to put forward their proposals. However, it cannot be the sole basis, as training needs of majority of organizations are very specific. The experiences of the training agencies can only serve to facilitate the process.

3) Pre-training Survey of the participants’ Needs: This could be the best way to assess the training needs of employees. In this exercise, it would be beneficial if the superiors are also included, as they have a better overview and a wider perspective on the training needs of their associates, especially in the context of their performance. This is generally done in a systematic manner with the help of a structured questionnaire in order to reflect the genuine desire to involve the participants and the organization in the planning process.

Determination of Training Needs

The determination of training needs and organization of training programmes would vary from organization to organization. On one hand there may be a progressive company with highly organized central personnel and training departments, and a plan for integrated manpower development. At the other extreme there may be a company where the personnel and training responsibilities are not very clear.

In the first type of company, the determination of training needs is something which is constantly being carried out. On the other hand, in the second type of company, training is less likely to be planned for the company as a whole.

Even if the approach of each company differs, there are number of common basic steps:

1) Take an Inventory: Take an inventory of existing manpower both qualitatively and quantitatively.

2) Make forecasts of future Requirements: make forecasts of future requirements by considering normal wastage through resignations, retirements, transfers, etc.

3) Look for Source of talent: Look for sources of talent both within and outside the organization.

4) Prepare Strategy for Development: Prepare strategy for development for existing as well as future manpower.

The training officer has to base his strategy on a number of other factors. These factors are as follows:

Consider Terms of Reference: Consider terms of reference by getting recommendations from the management for the company as a whole or first by concentrating on the specific department.

Consider the Situation within the Organization: Consider the situation within the organization by ascertaining which training programmes have already been conducted and not conducted in the organization.

Consider the Information already Available: Consider the information already available regarding new employees and existing employees.

Consider the problems which arise within the Organization: Consider the problems which arise within the organization like huge labor turnover, unnecessary wastages, excessive maintenance costs and frequent customer complaints.

Consider other possible Approaches: Consider other possible approaches like business and production reports, questionnaires, tests, surveys, group conferences, etc.

IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS/ TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT


Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the organization (long-term) and the individual employees (short-term).This involves finding answers to questions such as: Whether training is needed? If yes, where is it needed? Etc. Once training gaps within the organization is identified, it becomes easy to design an appropriate training programme. Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis, as shown in table below.

1) Organizational Analysis : It involves a study of the entire organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, the utilization of these resources , in order to achieve stated objectives and its interaction pattern with environment. The important elements that are closely examined in this connection are:

i) Analysis of objectives : This is a study of short-term and long-term objectives and the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives.

ii) Resource Utilization Analysis : How the various organizational resources (human, Physical and financial) are put to use is the main focus of this study. The contributions of various departments are also examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. This is done to find out comparative labor costs, whether a unit is under-manned or over- manned.

iii) Environmental Scanning : Here the economic, political, socio-cultural and technological environment of the organization is examined.

iv) Organizational Climate Analysis : The climate of an organization speaks about the attitudes of members towards work, company policies, supervisors, etc. Absenteeism, turnover ratios generally reflect the prevailing employee attitudes, These can be used to find out whether training efforts have improved the overall climate within the company or not.

2) Task or Role Analysis : This is a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and conditions under which it has to be performed. The focus here is on the roles played by an individual and the training needed to perform such roles. The whole exercise is meant to find out how the various tasks have to be performed and what kind of skills, knowledge attitudes are needed to meet the job needs. Questionnaires, interviews, reports, tests, observation and other methods are generally used to collect job related information from time- to –time. After collecting the information, an appropriate training programme may be designed, paying attention to:

i) Performance standards required of employees,
ii) The tasks they have to discharge,
iii) The methods they will employ on the job, and
iv) How they have learned such methods, etc.

3) Person Analysis : Here the focus is on the individual in a given job. There are three issues to be resolved through manpower analysis:

i) We try to find out whether performance is satisfactory and training is required.

ii) Whether the employee is capable of being trained and the specific areas in which training is needed.

iii) We need to state whether poor performers (who can improve with requisite training inputs) on the job need to be replaced by those who can do the job. Other options to training such as modifications in the job or processes should also be looked into personal observation, performance reviews, supervisory reports , diagnostic tests help in collecting the required information and select particular training options that try to improve the performance of individual workers.

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT


Identification of training needs/Training need assessment is important from both the organizational point of view as well as from an individual’s point of view.

From an organization’s point of view, it is important because an organization has objectives that it wants to achieve for the benefit of all stakeholders or members, including owners, employees, customers, suppliers and neighbors, These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people, releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development.

From an individual’s point of view, people have aspirations, they want to develop and in order to learn and use new abilities and people need appropriate opportunities, resources and conditions. Therefore, to meet people’s aspirations, the organization must provide effective and attractive learning resources and conditions.

With the help of training need identification, organization can focus on the following areas:

To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line.

To decide what specific training ach employee needs and what will improve his or her job performance.

To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues and bring about a match between individual aspirations and organizational goals.

APPROACHES TO TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT


The two approaches are:

1) Proactive TNA: The proactive TNA focuses on future human resource requirements. The HR function needs to be involved in the development of a strategic plan (SWOT analysis). From the resulting unit objectives, HR must develop unit strategies and tactics to be sure the organization has employees with the required KSAs in each of the critical jobs based on future KSA requirements. Two approaches can be taken to develop needed KSAs:

a) Prepare employees for promotions/ transfers to different jobs.

b) Prepare employees for changes in their current jobs.

An effective, proactive procedure used for promotions and transfers is succession planning, Succession planning is the identification and development of employees who are perceived to be of high potential. The first step in development of a succession plan is to identify key positions in the organization. These positions, if left vacant for any length of time, would negatively affect organizational functioning. In practice, these positions often are high-level management positions such as vice president of finance, plant manager and so forth, but they could be at any level (e.g., mold -maker if the position is key to the operation and difficult to fill). Once the positions are identified, employees with the potential to fill these key positions are identified, employees with the potential to fill these key positions are identified, and employees with the potential to fill these key positions are identified. Information is then provided on employees’ readiness to fill the position if it becomes vacant. This information becomes the TNA.

When preparing employees for changes in their current jobs, it is important that the TNA identify the changes that are expected based on strategic objectives. Once expected changes are determined, new KSAs required for that job can be identified. These future KSAs can be compared with the incumbent’s current KSAs, and any resulting discrepancies can then be addressed through training. Consider Heinz. When they determined that they would be moving to a high-tech ketchup machine, it was necessary to determine what KSAs would be necessary to operate it. Training in these KSAs then occurred before the new equipment was in place.

2) Reactive TNA: The reactive TNA begins with an existing discrepancy in job performance. A middle manager may notice that production is dropping a supervisor may see that a particular employee’s performance declined, or human resources may note an increase in grievances from a particular employee’s performance declined, or human resources may note an increase in grievances from a particular department. Once a discrepancy is identified, or human resources may note an increase in grievances from a particular department. Once a discrepancy is identified, one need to determine whether it is worth fixing. Although, this decision may be based on financial implications, it does not have to b. for example, the company notes that one department has lower rating of supervisory consideration (as rated by subordinates) than the organization expected. The cost of this lower rating would be difficult to assess. It may take a long time (If ever) to notice any significant impact on the company’s bottom line. If the company makes a strong commitment to developing a good employee-management relationship, it may decide to try to alleviate the problem.

In the reactive TNA, the organizational analysis, operational analysis, and person analysis is still conducted, but the distinction among them is even more blurred for the following reasons:

i) The focus is primarily on the one department.

ii) Those who demonstrate the discrepancy (and their peers and subordinates) are the key persons to be interviewed about all three components.

iii) The discrepancy focuses the issue on a particular part of the job (e.g., interactions with subordinates).

METHODS USED IN TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT


Identifying Specific Problems: Such problem are productivity, high costs, poor material control, poor quality, excessive scrap and waste, excessive labor-management troubles, excessive grievances, excessive violation of rules of conduct, poor discipline, high employee turnover and transfers, excessive absenteeism, accidents, excessive fatigue, fumbling, discouragement, struggling with the job; standards of work performance not being met, bottlenecks in productions, deadlines not being met, and delayed production. Problems like these suggest that training may be necessary. For this the task and workers should be closely observed and the difficulties found out.

Anticipating Impending and future problems: Baring on the expansion of business, the introduction of new products, new services, new designs, new plant, and new technology and of organizational changes concerned with manpower inventory for present and future needs.

Management Requests: The supervisors and managers may make specific request for setting training programmes. Though this method is simple and a correct evaluation of the employees performance deficiencies can be made, but often such recommendations may be built on built on faulty assumptions: and requests may not coincide with each other or organizational goals.

Interviewing and observing the personnel on the job: Interviewing personnel and direct questioning and observation of the employee by his supervisors may also reveal training needs.

Performance Appraisal: an analysis of the past performance records of the perspective trainee and comparing his actual performance with the target performance may provide clues to specific interpersonal skills that may need development.

Questionnaires: Questionnaires may be used for eliciting options of the employees on topics like communication, satisfaction, job characteristics, their attitude towards working conditions, pay, promotion policies etc.These will reveal much information about where an employee’s skills and knowledge are deficient.

Checklist: The use of checklist is a useful supplement to interviews and observations. Through it, more reliable information can be obtained and the data got are quantifiable. This facilitates evaluating the training programmes’ effectiveness.

Morale and Attitude surveys: An occasional personnel audit may be conducted to forecast future promotions, skill requirements, and merit rating, to initiate informal discussions and an examination of records and statistics regarding personnel, production, cost, rejects and wastages. All these generally reveal the potential problems to be tackled through training programmes.

Interpersonal skills: In addition, test of the interpersonal skills through handling of posed cases and incidents, may also reveal training needs.

Disadvantages of Training Needs Assessment


The list of disadvantages is considerably smaller than the benefits of advantages. The only one of any significance is the need for a skilled person to be employed and consequently the use of the person’s time. This is one of the common criticisms of TNA’s. Failure to conduct any form of TNA, in the same way as failure to validate and evaluate the training programme, leaves the organization open to criticisms of over-use and waste of money spent on unnecessary training, to every attempt must be made to identify and analyze the needs accurately.

Training Needs Assessment Process


The following are the steps in TNA process:

Step one: Identify problem Needs

1) Determine organizational context.
2) Gap analysis is performed.
3) Objectives are set.

Step two: Determine Design of Needs Analysis

1) Method selection criteria is established.
2) Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are assessed.

Step three: Collect Data

1) Interviews are conducted.
2) Questionnaires and surveys are administered.
3) Documents are reviewed.
4) People at work are observed to find out how the work is being done.

Step four: Analyze data

1) Qualitative analysis and,
2) Quantitative analysis is conducted.
3) Solution/ recommendations are determined.

Step Five: Provide Feedback

1) Report is prepared.
2) Presentation is made to the management.
3) What training is needed is decided.

Step Six: Develop Action Plan

Once this formal needs assessment process is completed, the information is used as the basis for training design, development and evaluation. However, one must continue to assess the attitudes, knowledge and skill level of participants prior to each session. Different audiences may have different needs. This can be done both through a basis questionnaire sent just prior to a specific training event and also during the first five minutes of each session.

1) Changing the job itself: This is the process undertaken as the last resort. This option can be considered when training, practice, providing job aids are not possible.

2) Training Needs: these are generally the needs that arise due to the lack of KSA’s (knowledge, skills and abilities) that are necessary for the job to be performed effectively and their lack causes performance deficiency.

Training Policy


The word ‘policy’ has its roots to the Greek word polis meaning ‘city’ a term that in classical times conveyed notions of system or law and order. A policy is an expression of intention, which gives general guidance for the conduct of corporate affairs.

Organizations develop training policies for four main reasons.

1) To define the relationship between the organization’s objections objectives and its commitment to the training functions.

2) To provide operational guidelines and responsibilities of the management for planning and implementation of training so as to ensure that the training resources are directed in achieving critical success factors and priorities of the organization.

3) To provide information to the employees.

4) To enhance public relations and corporate image of the organization. The training policy at the corporate level may contain general statements and aim at influencing the outside world. Corporate policy at the departmental level-states the line manager’s action-plan by specifying the nature of the training, duration of training, the venue of training, for whom it is meant and who will be responsible for its implementation. It is at this level the training policy plays a vital role in linking the training objectives with the organization’s objectives.

Factors Influencing training Policy


The training policy of an organization is influenced by many factors. The training policy is more often determined by the prevailing situation than as principle in generation and hence is dynamic and susceptible to change.

The following factors influence the training policy:

1. The vision and mission of the organization.

2. The aims and strategic objectives of organization.

3. Size, traditions and prevailing culture in the organization.

4. Products or services of the organization.

5. Economic and social objectives of the organization.

6. The level of technology upgradation.

7. Obligation to provide professional updating and continuous training.

8. Top management’s views about training.

9. The labor market and the availability of skilled and qualified staff.

10. Organization’s past and present training policies and practices.

11. The resources that are available and allocable surplus to training.

12. Expectation of employees and records of training needs of the organization.

13. Government legislation in areas of industrial safety/statutory requirements.

14. Government funds available for sponsoring training programmes.

Contents of Training policy

The training policy of an organization is likely to cover most of the following points either explicitly or implicitly.

The underlying philosophy/belief of the organization about the value of the training.

The process available for identifying the organizational training needs.

What type of training is provided by organization- only job related, career related or general programmes?

Who will be the target audience amongst employees?

What extents of financial resources are allocated for training?

Balance struck between on-the-job and off-the-job training and between internal and external resources and the basis on which such decisions will be made like cost, cost effectiveness, urgency, etc.

Who will be responsible to decide whether a training proposal is covered and to what extent and to whom the employees can appeal against decisions that affect their training?

Evolving/Drafting Training policy

1) Introduction : Write few lines on the importance of training. Like Training and Development requires the same rigor and attention as any other management task. Well managed, training and development can deliver people with the right skills at the right time to enable the organization to deliver strategic results.

2) Purpose and Scope : Write objective of the training which will be impacted to the employs.

3) Applicability : To whom it applies?

4) References and Definition : References of other policies or documents which might be mentioned in the policy. Definition of the technical words used.

5) Training Needs Analysis : Jot down the methods that will be used for doing Training Need Analysis.

6) Training Need Analysis : Mention from where all the training material or content will be derived. In case of internal content development, mention who will be approving the content made. Mention about Training curriculum, i.e., what all trainings will be imparted whether soft skills, sales or technical or all.

7) Mode of Delivery : Mention what will be the mode of delivery, i.e., online, classroom or on the job.

8) Costing : what cost will be incurred during training programme.

9) Documentation : What all kinds of reports and documents will be maintained and for how long they’ll be kept.

10) Training Feedback and Evaluation : Training feedback and evaluation might include any specific benchmark for trainers, any assessment that might be conducted after the training to the judge the participant’s knowledge.

11) Training Environment : What kind of seating arrangements will be there in the training room, white boards or projector required.

12) Tracking, Training, and Certification : How training imparted will be tracked (any specific software will be used or not) or hard copies to be maintained, how employees’ performance will be tracked and will employees be given a certification after the training or not.

13) Training Department support system :Mention the responsibilities and coordination required by the different departments, trainees and management.

14) Checklist for training : Mention all the material that will be required, i.e., manual, white board, makers, projector, computers, water bottles, etc.

15) Lastly : List of the templates or forms that will be used in training, Like nomination form, attendance form, training feedback form, etc.

Advantages of Training Policy


The training policy aims to clarify the purpose of training and to communicate the top management’s intentions.

The training policy defines the organization’s responsibility for the development of the individual employee.

It helps the management responsible for implementing the training, clarifying their role and function.

Progressive training policy enhances the employee-employer relationship.

The training policy stats in general terms the training opportunities to enhance their knowledge and skill and appropriately to prepare them to take up new responsibilities.

Preparing a training policy requires considerable skill and attention to details. The policy statements are to be positive and should not contain any ambiguities.
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Review Questions
  • 1. Explain the meaning and nature of training and development.
  • 2. Write notes on the scope and aspects of industrial relations.
  • 3. Write notes on - Need for Trade union, Objectives of a Trade union and functions of Trade union.
  • 4. Explain the concept of workers participation in management. Also discuss the evolution of this concept.
  • 5. Meaning and definition of Grievance.
  • 6. Define the Concept of collective bargaining.
  • 7. Define the 'Industrial Dispute' under the industrial disputes act 1947.
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