MBA management

Training and Development Techniques under OD


The various inputs in training and development

Any training and development program must contain inputs which enable participants gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is need for giving ethical orientation, emphasizing attitudinal changes and stressing decision making and problem solving abilities.

a) Skills:
Training as was started earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skill to operate machines and use other equipment with least damage and scrap. This is basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skill. Motor skills (or psychomotor skills, as they are sometimes called) refer to performance of physical activities. These skills involve learning to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills are walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball, and driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees from janitor to general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills, popularly known as the people skills. Inter- personal skills are needed to understand one self and other better and act accordingly. Examples of inter- personal skills include listening, persuading, and showing understanding of others’ feelings.

b) Education:
The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. That any training and development program must contain an element of education is well realized by OB specialists. Any such program will have university professors as resource persons who will enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to be discussed. In fact, organizations depute or encourage employee to do courses on part-time basis. CEOs are known to attend refresher course conducted by business schools. Mr. Manu Chabria, Shaw Wallace, attended a two –month program at hardware Business School. Education is more needed for managers and executives.

c) Development:
Another component of training and development program is the development which is less skills oriented bur stresses knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like will be useful to manage one’s company better.

d) Ethics:
There is need for giving greater ethical orientation to thee training and development program. There is no denial of the fact that ethics is largely ignored in business. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production functions of an organization. They are less seen and talked about in personnel function. This does not mean that the human resource manager is absolved of the responsibility. If unethical activities are practiced by production, finance or marketing personnel the guilt recoils on the human resource manager. It is his/ her duty to enlighten all the employs in the organization about the need for ethical behavior.

e) Attitudinal changes:
Attitudes represent feelings and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitudes affect motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Where attitudes are negative, they need to be converted into positive. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because (1) employees refuse to change, (2) they have prior commitments, and (3) information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient. Nevertheless, attitudes must be changed so that employees feel committed to organization, are motivated for better performance and derive satisfaction from their jobs and work environment.

f) Decision-making and problem solving:
Decision making and problem solving focus on methods and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work- related problems. Learning related decision- problems, collect and analyze information, generate alternative solutions and make an optimal decision from among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisions and professionals.

Importance of Training and Development

Training and development program, as was pointed earlier, helps remove performance deficiencies in employees. This is particularly true when:

• The deficiency is caused by a lack ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform.
• The individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn how to do the job better, and
• Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors.

There is greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. They seldom leave the company. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. All-rounders can be transferred to any new jobs. Flexibility is, therefore, ensured. Growth indicates prosperity, which is reflected in increased profits from year. Who else but well-trained employees that can contributes to the prosperity of the enterprise?

Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Even dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism, and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well.

Future needs for employees will be met through training and development programs. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. They are absorbed after course completion. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is an investment in human resources with a promise of better returns in future.

A company’s training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Through no single training program yields all the benefits discussed above, the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its human capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. At the same time, the employee’s personal and career goals are furthered, generally adding to his or her abilities and value of the employer, the objectives of the human resource department are also furthered.

Methods and Techniques of Training

Various training methods are used to train employees. As days go by, newer methods gain entry into the field. The methods now being used are either on-the–job method. On the –job methods refer to those that are applied in the workplace, while the employees is actually working. Off-the-job methods are used away from the workplaces.

Training techniques represent the media to impart skills and knowledge to employees. Obviously, training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. The techniques available to impart on the job training include job instruction training, job rotation, apprenticeship and coaching. Off- the job training techniques cover a wide variety and include lectures, video presentation, vestibule training, role playing, case study, simulation, self-study, program instruction and laboratory training.

Laboratory training


History of lab training techniques in the USA

In 1947 the National Training Laboratories Institute developed a technique at Bethel Maine in the USA. This technique was also christened as the T- group training. T-group movement has its roots in the pioneering laboratory works of Kurt Lewin while he was with the MIT institute in the USA. In India, the T-Group as an OD Intervention was pioneered by the Behavioral Science group at Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta during the early 1970s. T-Group technique was extensively used as team building and intergroup conflict resolution interventions by a few leading private and public sector undertakings in India such as TISCO, HMT, KAMANI GROUP, Indian Aluminum Limited , TELCO, BHEL, to name a few.

They pioneered the use of T-groups (Laboratory Training) in which the learners use here; new experiences in the group, feedback among participants and theory on human behavior to explore group process and gain insights into themselves and other. The goal is to offer people, options for their behavior in groups. The T- group was a great training innovation which provided the base for what we now know about team building. This was a new method that would help leaders and managers create a more humanistic, people serving system and allow leaders and managers to see how their behavior actually affected others. There was a strong value of concern for people and a desire to create systems that took people’s needs and feeling seriously.

Nuances of T-Group training

Also known as sensitivity training group, the T-group was great training innovation which provided the base for what we now know about team building. A form of laboratory training, small group of people interact with each other in a totally unstructured situation. The participants get a hands-on experience as the unstructured group evolves into a fully functioning cohesive entity passing through various phases of growth.

The T-group is intended to provide increased understanding of group development and dynamics gaining better understanding of underlying social process at work within a group. The participants are responsible for their own learning social processes at work within a group. The participants are responsible for their own learning through self- direction and self- control. They are expected to take initiative in developing insight into the dynamics of team through active participation, reflection, observation and experimentation in an unstructured situation. In this process the participants, reflection, observation and experimentation in an unstructured situation. In this process the participants sharpen their skills in diagnosing, interpreting and making appropriate interventions for creating a climate conductive to enhanced learning through mutual sharing, caring and helping each other. It helps leaders and managers create a humanistic people serving system and allow them to examine how their behavior affects others. Applying T-group techniques in organizations came to be known as team building- a process for helping work groups become effective in task accomplishment and member satisfaction. The extensive use of T-group as OD intervention demands that the group should become a powerful target and medium of change in organization.

Objectives of T-Group Learning process in the research laboratories of Kurt Lewin

The T-Group is intended to provide you the opportunity to:

• Increase your understanding of group development and dynamics.
• Gain a better understanding of the underlying social processes at work within a group (looking under the tip of the iceberg).
• Increase your skill in facilitating group effectiveness.
• Increase interpersonal skills.
• Experiment with changes in your behavior.
• Increase your awareness of your own feelings in the moment; and offer you the opportunity to accept responsibility for your feelings.
• Increase your understanding of the impact of your behavior on others.
• Increase your sensitivity to others’ feelings.
• Increase your ability to give and receive feedback.
• Increase your ability to learn from your own and group’s experience.
• Increase your ability to manage and utilize conflict.

Success in the goals depends, to a large extent, on the implied contract that each participant is willing to disclose feelings that she or he may have, in the moment, about others in the group, and to solicit feedback from the others about herself or himself. The focus in upon individual learning; some participants may learn a great deal in moist of the above areas, others learn relatively little.

Methods

One way of describing what may happen for a participants is----

Unfreezing habitual responses to situations--- this is facilitated by the participant’s own desire to explore new ways of behaving and the trainer staying non-directive, silent, and providing little structure or task agents.

Self-generated and chosen change by the participant--- Experiment with new behaviors- Practice description not evaluation of their own behavior.

Reinforce new behavior by positive feedback, participants own assessment of whether what is happening is closer to what she/he intends, supportive environment, trust development.

Role play in Organizational Development

A number of organizations have been working professionally in the role- play arena since 1998 providing a dedicated role-play service conscientious, professional actors. To identify a proper workforce.

Involving role-play as a tool in your planning and preparation adds high value leverage when developing, promoting and recruiting professional employees.

Uses of Role play

• Training & Development
• Recruitment & Selection
• Assessment Centers
• Assessing Development Strengths & Weaknesses

Role play can be used as a tool to pinpoint where strengths and weaknesses lie with your employees, as well as being a valuable tool to help assess potential candidates for recruitment. Thus, Role play is a valuable tool to help improve performance of any organization.

Organizations who employ role-play as part of their decision making process in training, recruitment and selection, assessment centers and organizational development have been highly successful in inculcating a work discipline in tune with the needs and the demands of the organization.

For developing appropriate scenario scripts and situations, to test and assess the necessary skills of individuals needed for development and progression within an organization, the role- play concept has been found very useful.

In training and development role- play provides a safe environment in which to learn how to tackle sensitive situations. Role play allows candidates to develop and home effective skills including:

• Negotiating
• Problem solving sensitive issues
• Managing

Another valuable advantage of using role-play in training & development is it allows participants to make and learn from mistakes which could have problematic consequences in the real world.

In recruitment and selection, the advantages of using professional role play actors allows candidates to come into contact with a simulated business setting thus providing assessment of their interpersonal, negotiating and management skills- tested in a realistic work setting.

Again, the benefits of the simulated setting are manifold allowing candidates to gain experience in negotiating and managing, as make and learn from mistakes which could have problematic consequences in the real world.

Role play professionals are highly skilled and experienced in both the role play arena and have a strong level of interpersonal teaching and feedback skills and experience.

They can give constructive valuable feedback tailored to meet the needs of the individual client and participant; their ability to recall and highlight key issues will surface developmental and key skills areas, supporting individuals to focus on the most important points for successful conclusions to business situations.

Behavioral Modeling under the Organizational Behavior, Design and Development


Models are frameworks or possible explanations why people behave as they do at work. Organizations differ in the quality of organizational behavior that they develop. These differences are substantially caused by different models of organizational behavior being followed by management in each organization. The model that a manager holds usually begins with certain assumptions about people and leads to certain interpretations of events.

Classification of models under organizational behavior

All the models of organizational behavior are classified into four types and these models have been followed by managers of different organizations at different time. These are autocratic, custodial, supportive and collegial as shown below.

Model   Autocratic   Custodial   Supportive   Collegial
Basis of model   Power   Economic resources   Leadership   Partnership
Managerial Orientation   Authority   Money   Support   Team Work
Employee Orientation   Obedience   Security and Benefits   Job Performance   Responsible behavior
Employee psychological result   Dependence on Boss   Dependence on Organization   Participation   Self discipline
Employee needs met   Subsistence   Security   Status and recognition   Self actualization
Performance result   minimum   Passive Cooperation   A wakened drives   Moderate enthusiasm


a) The Autocratic Model:
This model depends on power. Those who are in command must have the power to demand. The managerial orientation is doctorial and exercises their commands over employees. Management believes that it knows what is best and that the employee’s obligation is to follow orders. The employee’s orientation towards managers/ bosses is obedience and usually gives minimum performance and in turn, gets minimum wages.

Under this model, the employee orientation is obedience to the boss. The psychological result for employees is dependence on their boss. This model has been successful in certain situations such as where workers are lazy and work-shirkers and where accomplishment of task is of utmost importance.

b) The Custodial Model:
Workers being managed under the autocratic model often feel insecurity and frustration. They may even show aggression towards their boss and their families and co-workers. This made the managers think how to develop better employee satisfaction and security. It was realized that this can be done by discipline employee insecurity, frustration and aggression. This called for introduction of welfare programs to satisfy security needs of employees. Welfare programs like housing, transportation, education to their children, medical treatment etc. lead to employee dependence on the organization rather than on the boss.

The employees are satisfied and happy but they are not strongly motivated, so they may give only passive co-operation.

c) The Supportive Model:
The term “collegial” relates to a body of persons having a common purpose. This model is basically an extension of the supportive model. The collegial model depends on management‘s building a feeling of partnership with employees. The result is that employees feel useful. They consider manager as joint contributors to organizational success rather than as bosses. The managerial orientation under this model is teamwork. Its greatest benefit is that the employee becomes self-disciplined. Feeling responsible backed by self – discipline creates a feeling of team work. It is very useful in research laboratories and similar work environment. In this, employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment, worthwhile contribution and self- actualization even through the amount may be modest in some situations. This self actualization will lead to moderate enthusiasm in performance.

Performance feedback under organizational behavior improvement- OB modification model approach in the behavioral sphere

a) Introduction:
There is little questions that despite the tremendous amount of data being generated by today’s advanced information system, individuals receive very little, if any, feedback about the performance. People have an intense desire to know how they are doing their work. They engage in feedback- seeking behavior. Even though feedback has been found to be complex in research studies, it is generally accepted that feedback enhances individual performance in behavioral management.

An argument can also be made that actionable feedback- feedback that leads to learning and appropriate results--- is more effective than just critical and negative feedback. Not only are the amount and the frequency of feedback generated by a source important, but also the consistency and usefulness of the information generated. Despite these statements, a general guide line regarding performance feedback is that it can be a very effective reinforcement for behavioral performance management.

b) The organizational behavioral management model
This model is based on behavioristic, social learning and social cognitive theories and especially the principles of reinforcement. The simple steps involved in this model are depicted below.
The major steps involved in the above OB model:

i. Identify: Performance related behavioral events. Usually these have to do with quantity or quality of producing products or delivering service by operating employees.

ii. Measure: How often are the performance behaviors identified in step1 occurring under existing conditions? This is called the baseline measure.

iii. Analyze: What are the antecedent(A), cues of the performance behavior (B), and what are the contingent consequences (C)? This A-B-C analysis is a necessary prerequisite to developing an effective intervention strategy.

iv. Intervene: This is the action step of O>B> Mod. The goal is to accelerate functional performance behaviors and decelerate the dysfunctional behaviors. Positive reinforcement strategies involving money, social recognition/ attention, and feedback are most used.

v. Evaluate: This final step evaluates to make sure the intervention does in fact lead to performance improvement. If it doesn’t then another analysis and/ or intervention is made.

c) The steps involved described in detail

Step 1: Identification of Performance Behaviors:
In this first step the critical behaviors that make a significant impact on performance (making or selling a product or providing a service to clients of customers) are identified. In every organization, regardless of type or level, numerous behaviors are occurring all the time. Some of these behaviors have a significant impact on performance, and some do not. The goal of the first step of O>B> Mod. Is to identify the critical behaviors— the 5 to 10 percent of the behaviors that may account for up to 70 or 80 percent of the performance in the area in question.

The process of identifying critical behaviors can be carried out in a couple of ways. One approach is to have the person closest to the job in question- the immediate supervisor or the actual jobholder- determine the critical behaviors. This goes hand in hand with using O.B. Mod, as a problem- solving approach for the individual manager or a team. Its advantages are that the person who knows the job best can most accurately identify the critical behaviors, and ,because that person is participating, he or she may be more committed to carrying the O>B> Mod . Process to its successful completion.

Step 2: Measurement of the Behavior
After the performance behaviors have been identified in step 1, they are measured. A baseline measure is obtained by determining (either by observing and counting or by extracting from existing records) the number of times that the identified behavior is occurring under existing conditions. Often this baseline frequency is in and of itself very revealing. Sometimes it is discovered that the behavior identified in step1 is occurring much less or much more frequently than anticipated. The baseline measure may indicate that the problem is much smaller or much bigger than was thought to be the case. In some instance the baseline measure may cause the “problem” to be dropped because its low (or high) frequency is now deemed not to need change.

The purpose of the baseline measure is to provide objective frequency data on the critical behavior. A baseline frequency count is an operational definition of the strength of the behavior under existing conditions. Such precise measurement is the hallmark of any scientific endeavor, and it separates O.B. Mod, from more subjective human resources management approaches, such as participation. Although the baseline is established before the intervention to see what happens to the behavior as a result of the intervention, it is important to realize that measures are taken after the intervention as well.

Step 3: Functional Analysis of the behavior
Once the performance behavior has been identified and a baseline measure has been obtained, a functional analysis is performed. A functional analysis identifies both the antecedents (A) and consequences (C) of the target behavior (B), or, simply stated, an A-B-C analysis is performed. As discussed under behavioristic learning theory and operant conditioning, both the antecedent and the consequent environments are vital to the understanding, prediction, and control of human behavior in organizations. Remember that in an operant approach, cognitive mediating processes do not play a role. Such an omission may detract from the comprehensive understanding of organizational behavior and the analysis may be sufficient. In the A-B-C functional analysis.

A is the antecedent cur, B is the performance behavior identified in step 1, and C is the contingent consequence.

This functional analysis step of O.B. Mod bring out the problem- solving nature of the approach. Both antecedent cues that emit the behavior, and sometimes control it, and the consequences that are currently maintaining the behavior must be identified and understood before an effective intervention strategy can be developed.

Step 4: Development of an Intervention Strategy
The first three steps in an O>B> Mod. Approach are preliminary to this action step, the intervention. The goal of the intervention is to strengthen and accelerate functional performance behaviors and/or weaken and decelerate dysfunctional behaviors. There are several strategies that can be used, but the main ones are positive reinforcement and punishment- positive reinforcement.

i. A Positive Reinforcement Strategy
Positive, not negative, reinforcement is recommended as an effective intervention strategy for O>B> Mod. The reason is that positive reinforcement represents a form of positive control of behavior, whereas negative reinforcement represents a form of positive control of behavior, whereas negative reinforcement represents a form of negative control of behavior. Traditionally, and to a large extent still today, organizations depend on negative control. People come to work in order not to be fired, and they look busy when the supervisors walk by in order not to be punished. Under positive control, the person behaves in a certain way in order to receive the desired consequence. Under positive control, people come to work in order to be recognized for making a contribution to their department’s goal of perfect attendance, or they keep busy whether the supervisor is around or not in order to receive incentive pay or because they get social recognition? Attention and feedback for their good work. Positive control through a positive reinforcement intervention strategy is much more effective and longer lasting them negative control. It creates a much healthier and more productive organizational climate.

ii. A Punishment—Positive Reinforcement Strategy
There is a debate that a positive reinforcement strategy is the most effective interventions for OB modification. Yet realistically it is recognized that in some cases the use of punishment to weaken and decelerate and undesirable behaviors cannot be avoided. This would be true in the case of something like unsafe behaviors that need to be decreased immediately however, so many negative side effects such as hate and revenge accompany a use of punishment that it should be avoided it at all possible. Punished behavior tends to be only temporarily suppressed might once again surface when the supervisors is absent. Perhaps the biggest problem with the use of punishment is that it is very difficult for supervisors to switch roles from punisher to positive reinforce. Some managers relay on a negative approach so much in dealing with his workers that it is almost impossible for them to administer positive reinforcement effectively. If punishment is absolutely necessary, it should only be used in combination with positive reinforcement of the desirable alternative behavior.

Step 5: Evaluation to Ensure Performance Improvement
A glaring weakness of most human resource management programs is the absence of any systematic, built- in evaluation. A comprehensive analysis of the evaluation of human resources programs concluded that the traditional approach has been to review a program with one or two vice president s at the corporate office, various managers in the field, and perhaps a group of prospective trainees. It continues to be used until someone in a position of authority decides that the program has outlived its usefulness. All of this is done on the basis of opinion and judgment. Such haphazard evaluations have resulted in the termination of some effective programs and the perpetuation of some ineffective ones.

O>B> Mod. Attempts to meet the credibility and accountability problems head on by including evaluation as an actual part of the process. In this last step of the approach, the need for Kirkpatrick’s well- known four levels of evaluation (reaction, learning, behavioral change, and performance improvement) is stressed. The reaction level refers simply to whether the people using the approach and those having it used on them like it. If O.B. Mod. is well received and there is a positive reaction to it, there is a better chance of its being used effectively. In addition, reaction evaluations are helpful because

• Positive reactions help ensure organizational support.

• They can provide information for planning future programs.

• Favorable reactions can enhance the other levels of evaluation (learning, behavioral change, and provide information for planning future programs.

• Favorable reactions can enhance the other levels of evaluation (learning, behavioral change, and performance improvement) and

• They can provide useful comparative data between units and across time.

Application of Behavioral Management


There is a considerable body of research that has evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral performance management in general and 5 steps OB Model explained the above in particular. It has been widely applied in manufacturing as well as service oriented organizations. For many years and in very recent times, a number of studies have assessed the application of the above behavioral management approach for improving employee performance in a number of different areas which are as follows:

1. Employee Productivity:
Most applications by far have focused on performance output. The considerable number of research studies clearly indicate that employee productivity or task completion is positively affected by behavioral management techniques. The performance improvement is for both quantity and quality of employee output and cuts across virtually all organizational setting and all intervention techniques.

2. Absenteeism and Tardiness:
This is probably the second- biggest area of application. Studies that have examined this area have typically used small monetary incentives or lottery incentive systems for attendance or promptness and/or punishers for absenteeism or tardiness.

3. Safety and Accident Prevention:
Most organizations, especially manufacturing firms and others in which dangerous equipment is used, are very concerned about safety. However, because accidents occur at such a relatively low frequency, most studies have focused on reducing identifiable safety hazards or increasing safe behaviors. Safety equipment’s have to be made available to the workers at all points of time.

4. Sales Performance:
Sales managers and trainers have traditionally relied on internal motivation techniques to get their salespeople to improve their performance. For example, one behavioral performance management consultant tells about a company that gave its sales personnel a typical high powered, multimedia training program, which supposedly taught them effective selling skills. However, when the enthusiastic trainees finished the program and actually tried the things presented to them in the program, they received little, if any, feedback or reinforcement.

Summary

Although these results are not exhaustive and do not always reflect the exact O>B> Mod model outlined in this chapter, they are representative of the growing application of the behavioral performance management approach. In addition, both comprehensive qualitative and quantitative (media- analytic) review strongly support the findings.

The behavioral management approach in general and O>B> Mod. In particular have been demonstrated to have a significant positive impact on employee performance in both manufacturing and non- manufacturing service- oriented organizations.

Gaming


Dr. Eric Berne has written a book titled “Games people play”. This book helps to uncover the dynamics of human relationships which is certainly a part of the overall organizational behavior of workers. It is powerful in the sense that it brings out how human being responds to various situations in his life- be it his house or his work place. OB experts have likened it to a concept where workers/ managers play different roles (or different games?) in different situations.

Definition of a Game

“A game is an ongoing series of complementary ulterior transactions progressing to a well-defined, predictable outcome. Descriptively, it is a recurring set of transactions…with a concealed motivation… or gimmick.”

To re-state Bern’s definition, one can think of a game as a series as a series of interactions (words, body language, facial expressions, etc.) between two or more people that follow a predictable pattern. The interactions ultimately progress to an outcome in which one individual obtains a “payoff” or “goal.” In most cases, the participants of the games are unaware that they are “playing.”

Understanding the gaming concept in relation to OB

Describing this as a recurring set of transactions with the concealed motivation (or gimmicks?), the author states that the persons involved sometimes do not even know that they are playing the game. Through a well thought out plan of motivational ideas the players can be influenced to deliver what is expected of them.

The gaming concept can also be extended in to the scheme of organizational development and organizational design since the gaming styles go to show how human behavior patterns take shape in different situations. In one of the games presented by the Dr. Berne there is a phrase (if it were not for you-IWFY).This is followed by a versions of the behavior of an alcoholic where it states “IWFY, like step. Once the player(s) recognize they are playing a game efforts can be made to improve upon the problem. This is the basis of Transactional Analysis Therapy”.

Thus the principle of transactional change is brought into the scheme of organizational behavior and this change includes an evolutionary, adaptive, incremental, or continuous change organization. In this type, of change only the features change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. Opposed to this is the transformational change which involves revolutionary, radical or discontinuous change. In this type, of change the nature of organization is fundamentally and substantially altered.

It is therefore, clear that the workers / managers in an organization play different games in different capacities. The same person who is a worker also takes up the roles of a father in the house, a husband to the wife, a coworker in the organization, a communicator from the top management to the lower level workers etc. The organizational manager also plays a number of roles changing his behavior pattern according to the circumstances.

Roles and Responsibilities of a Manager


Decision Making

A manager makes organizational decisions and handles a variety of problems that arise on a daily basis. You have to identify the problems, create choices and alternative courses of actions.

The daily routine of making decisions include determining how to approach an employee who is not performing or lacking progress and how to bring about change to the organization and its team.

It involves thinking and planning out strategies on how to improve quality and also being cost conscious and effective.

Goal setting, planning and organizing substantial earnings, you have to communicate the vision of the company to your subordinates. You break down and clarify the goals that each team or individual have to perform and assign work schedules and strategies.

Having goals and planning out the directions allow for effective time management and saves cost and resources.

Guiding and giving directions

Your role as the head of an organization is to guide and give direction so that the team can perform effectively. You offer on the job coaching, training and support. In order for individuals to meet the needs and objectives, they may need extra input, information or skills.

Empowering others

The performance of your team depends on your abilities to empower them. How well a person performs depends on his motivation. Your task is to encourage and coach others to improve themselves and the quality of their work. Your task is to encourage and coach others to improve themselves and the quality of their work. You need to install in them the desire to excel and accept responsibility and self- management.

Communication and people skills

As the boss, your ability to develop trust and confidence, resolve problems and issues will result in a productive, goal oriented work group. You should encourage your team to ask for help, get involved and participate.

Practice empathy and respect their personal values, opinions and ideas. Listen and respond and offer praises and encouragements when they make progress. By doing that you will enhance their self praises and encouragements when they make progress. By doing that you will enhance their self-esteem and they will offer you the cooperation.

A manager is the middle person in between the top management level and the team that reports to him. He has to ensure that communication is smooth and conveyed clearly to avoid misinterpretations and dissatisfaction.

Evaluating and analyzing

You need to have the capacity to e valuate and examine a process or procedure and decide on the best choice to produce an outcome. You look at the importance, quality and values and then talking the best approach.

You are also expected to track the progress of each individual’s activities and effectiveness, review them and offer feedback and counseling.

Provide satisfaction among the staff and the customers

Your subordinates are happy when they know that their supervisors provide them with the necessary tools and resource. They feel secure if the management puts priority on health, safety and cleanliness issues.

You satisfy customers by giving good quality of service or product and take care of their needs.

Being an exemplary role model

Managers who set high standards or goals and achieve them are great leaders by examples. The ability to tolerate stress and remain poise under job pressures and still maintain high activity and energy level are contagious.

You should set the example by being accountable for your own activities and performance. Work harder on your personal growth and you will become a respected and efficient leader.

The concept of the gaming can also be fitted into these and the managers will have to apply different yardsticks to deal with different people down the line and also up the line.

Encounter Groups

We had already discussed in great detail the concept of intergroup behavior and had suggested a number of intergroup inventions to bring about improved performance by the various groups. These interventions are designed to enable two or more groups which could be departments or management and union two synergize their activities towards the achievement of common goals. The need for improving intergroup relationships arises out of the problems of inter departmental coordination, vertical integration across hierarchies and heightened management – union conflict. The intervention is aimed at focusing on common factors that bind the two groups together rather than on forces that divide them. The interventions is designed a such way that groups are able to identify and analyze problem between them, generate options for dealing with those problems and implement the viable option for improve effectiveness of the total systems.

The strained relationship between groups may led to intense conflict which could prove to be detrimental for the organization as a whole. One or more groups may become polarized and develop negative stereotypes about another group. The groups may adapt defensive stand against each other leading to distortion of communication. There are two approaches to resolve intergroup conflicts- behavioral and attitudinal change solutions. In behavioral methods, the relevant parties are kept physically separate and interactions occur under specified limited conditions. Attitudinal method on the other hand requires intense interaction aimed at changing the perception and attitudes of each group against the other. The Encounter Groups come in very handy in these types of situations.

There are what is called encounters groups at any work place in organizations. These encounters groups bring in a lot of influence to bear on the employees which helps in improving the total performance of the organizations.

Discussed below are the conditions and devices for successful Encounter groups at work place and merits of the group are also explained.

The following conditions are in respect of encounters groups

1. Participants’ attitude and expected behaviors.
2. Devices for facilitating are almost the same as ordinary encounter groups.

The other conditions that relate to above the ordinary encounter groups are:

i) Democratic and open atmosphere of a workplace,
ii) Understanding and cooperation of a workplace,

There are also other peculiar conditions for this type of encounter group.

The merits of these peculiar conditions are given below:

i. Change of the daily group,
ii. Improvement of a structure of a workplace about communication, mutual understanding, and interpersonal relationship,
iii. Development of common consciousness at a workplace, and
iv. Democratization of a workplace

The demerits are the followings:

i. Limitation of topics and the development of conversations,
ii. Disturbing of individual interests,
iii. Restriction of freedom of speaking,
iv. Obstruction of interpersonal relationship by unsolved problems.

Finally, it is suggested by the experience that this type of encounter group is one way that daily group and society are made openhearted, acceptable, and democratic, and wants organizer and facilitator to make efforts for careful organization and careful facilitation that they respect all participants individually.

The OD Intervention of Survey Feedback


Widely used intervention method whereby employee attitudes are solicited using a questionnaire is known as survey feedback. The questions included in the questionnaire intend to diagnose the problems within the organization and to identify areas or opportunities for change. The data so generated is perceptual and attitudinal in nature. The data is tabulated and distributed to employees. These data then become the springboard for identifying problems and clarifying issues that may be creating difficulties for people. Generally “feedback” if results is given only to the group which generated the data. Thus, once the problems are diagnosed, necessary corrective measures are taken to resolve the organizational problems. After sometimes, a second survey is conducted to measure improvement in the situation.

Need for Survey Feedback Tool in Organization Development

In globally competitive environments, organizations are seeking information about obstacles to productivity and satisfaction in the workplace. Survey feedback is a tool that can provide this type of honest feedback to help leaders guide and direct their teams. Obstacles and gaps between the current status quo and the desired situations may or may not be directly apparent. In either case, it is vital to have a clear understanding of strategies for diagnosis and prevention of important organization problems. If all leaders and members alike are clear about the organizational development and change, strengths, weakness, strategies can be designed and implemented to support positive change. Survey feedback provides a participative approach and enables all members to become actively engaged in managing the work environment.

Survey feedback Process Steps

Step 1: Identify project plan and objectives
Step 2. Brief team leaders and employees about the process
Step 3: Administer survey
Step 4: Conduct interviews and focus groups
Step 5: Train leaders on facilitating team discussions
Step 6: Analyze the data and construct a report
Step 7: Provide feedback to leaders
Step 8: Team leaders conduct feedback action planning and meetings
Step 9: Leaders present reports on progress and results to Senior Management
Step 10: Follow-up by senior leadership to ensure progress and accountability

Responsibility of the Team Leader

Once the data has been collected and observations have been clarified, it becomes the leader’s responsibility to familiarize the team with the findings. Next, the leader involves the team in outlining appropriate solutions and strategies that members can “buy into” and support over the long-haul. When leaders can facilitate collaborative teaming and become an organizational development and change agent, people in the team will contribute creative ideas to enhance their work environment.

It is important for leaders to not underestimate the time and facilitation skill needed to pass on the information and foster an action- oriented environment. The initial meetings and communication sessions are just the start of a development process, not a single event. If the survey feedback is to be effective, it must be implemented into a comprehensive strategy that includes goals, responsibilities, time frames, revisions, and reviews.

Prior to the action meetings, leaders need to gain a full understanding of the survey data and begin to structure a plan for the first meeting. Once the meeting begins, the leader should guide the group’s evaluation of the results and development of solutions. Following the initial meeting, a summary should be documented and action plans circulated. Follow- up meetings are necessary to coordinate and evaluate changes and progress. Action plans are the means of fully utilizing the survey feedback, without which we simply have a snap shot of where the organization is, with no plan for positive change.

If the team feedback meeting is poorly handled, there will be low front-end commitment on the part of the team. Of course group dynamics will be unique in every situation, and the leader will need to consider this as the survey data is disseminated. Tailoring sessions to meet the group characteristics will provide for a more effective discussion. In any case, consider a few of these ideas:

• Be optimistic and excited about the information and how it can be used to better the organization.
• Verbally express positive points.
• Ask for participation by all members and reinforce their openness and contributions.
• Invite them to explore with you the areas that need improvement.
• Be supportive and clear about action and follow-up plans.
• Establish a clear commitment to utilize the survey feedback long-term and seek further feedback from the group.

Most importantly, help the group understand the purpose and mission of the survey feedback. As a leader, feast on the opportunity of having clear data and truly listen and involve members in your organizational development and change endeavor.

Group Intervention Programs under OD


Quality of Work Life Program


a) Introduction:
One of the major problems facing the developing and the developed world is the quality of work life of a vast majority of employees engaged in productive pursuits. The concern is not just one of achieving greater human satisfaction but also improving productivity, adaptability and overall effectiveness of organizations. The quality of work life movement in a broader sense seeks to achieve integration among the technological, human, organizational and societal demands which are often contradictory and conflicting.

The quality of work life is not based on a particular theory. It does not advocate a particular technique for application. Instead, it is more concerned with the overall climate of work and the impact that the work has on people as on Organizational effectiveness. Direct participation of employees in problem- solving and decision making, particularly in areas related to their work is considered to be a necessary condition for providing greater autonomy and opportunity for self-direction and self- control. The recognized purpose is to change the climate at work so that the human – technological-organizational interface leads to a better quality of work life and eventually to an improved quality of life in community and society.

QWL is a step towards industrial democracy at shop floor. Several attempts to develop alternative forms of work organization have been made in India in various sectors of industries and service, the detailed accounts of which are available elsewhere. The need for redesigning work system in the light of adoption of new technology has been already highlighted in the preceding pages. Restructuring of work at shop floor level necessitates corresponding changes in the organization structure with emphasis on group as the building block and interdisciplinary teamwork.

b) Definition of QWL:
The American Society of Training and Development established a task force on the QWL way back in 1979. This task force defined QWL as “a process of work organizations which enables its members at all levels to actively participate in shaping the organizations” environment, methods and outcomes. This value based process is aimed towards meeting the twin goals of enhanced effectiveness of organization and improved quality of life at work for employees.”

Cohen and Rosenthal define QWL as an “internationally designed effort to bring about increased labor management cooperation to jointly solve the problem of improving organizational performance and employee satisfaction.

Having gone through above definitions of QWL, now QWL , in long and short’ can easily be defined as an approach concerned with the overall climate of work and the impact that the work has no people as well as on organizational effectiveness. Direct participation of employees in problem solving and decision making in areas related to their work helps upgrade the quality of life at work.

c) Evolution and Development of QWL Concepts
Like other concepts, evolution of QWL is also traced back to various phases in history. One such tracing is done by Walton by turning the pages of history of the last century. He reports that, in early 20th century, legislation was enacted to protect employees from job injury and to eliminate hazardous working conditions, on the one hand, and inauguration of unionization movement, on the other. Emphasis was given to work related conditions such as job-security, due process at the work place and economic gains for the worker. This was followed by propounding different theories by psychologists proposing a positive relationship between morale and productivity. They also tried to prove with research findings that harmonious human relations foster both morale and productivity. They also proposed reforms to acquire equal employment opportunities and job enrichment schemes.

It was against above background that finally in the 1970s, the idea of QWL was conceived. QWL was quite broader in sense and scope than these earlier stray developments mentioned above. Human values, needs and aspirations were at the heart of the concept of QWL.

This, it becomes clear that the basic concept underlying the QWL is what has come by now to be recognized as ‘humanization of work.” It gave genesis to the need for developing an overall work environment that stimulates the creative abilities of the workers, generates co-operations, and interest in self-growth. As a matter of fact, with growing awareness of work force, the realization and application of ‘humanization of work’ is on increasing. Truthfully speaking, it is this wide-spread realization of humanization of work that has made QWL a buzzword of the time. There is no looking back but to realize more and more how to make environment more and more humane.

d) Constituents of QWL
The most important constituents of QWL are as follows:

1. Adequate and Fair Compensation:
In brief, it refers to a just and fair balance between worker’s effort and reward out of it. In other words, it means whether compensation helps in maintaining a socially desirable standard of life and whether compensation bears an appropriate relationship to the pay received for other work. In India, for example, labor legislations like payment of Wages Act, 1936 and Minimum Wages Act, 1948 ensure adequate and fair compensation to the employees.

2. Safe and Healthy Working Conditions:
Factors like reasonable hour of work, Zero- risk physical conditions of work and age restrictions on both upper and lower side create safe and healthy working conditions. In India, once again, the Factories Act, 1948 enshrines minimum standards of protection from machine and other hazards such as noise, pollution, fume, gases, etc. at the place of work with a view to ensure safe and healthy working conditions.

(i) Opportunity to Use and develop Human Capacities:
One way to improve QWL is let the job allow sufficient autonomy and control, use of wider range of skills and abilities, provide immediate feedback to the worker to take corrective measures, and provide opportunity to plan and implement by workers themselves.

(ii) Opportunity to continued Growth and Security:
Here the focus is on career opportunities not on job itself. Opportunities available for growth of employees also contribute to improving QWL.

(iii) Social Integration in the Work Organization:
QWL is also aimed at generating sense of belonging to organization in which one works, on the hand, and developing of self-respect, on the other. Equal opportunities in employment irrespective of race, caste, creed, religion and sex are enshrined in Article 16 of the Indian Constitution.

(iv) Constitutionalisation in the Work Organization:
The constitutional guarantees such as right to personal privacy, free speech, equitable treatment, and governance by the “Rule of Law” are necessary to uphold to improve QWL.

(v) Work and the Total Life Space:
The demands of the work like late hours, frequent travel, quick transfers, etc., occurring on regular basis depress the employee, his or her family and QWL.

(vi) The Social Relevance of Work Life:
The discharge of social responsibility of business organization also contributes of QWL. On the contrary, lack of organization’s concern for social causes like waste disposal, low quality product, overaggressive marketing, etc. impinge upon self-esteem of workers.

e) QWL in the Indian contexts
It will not be less than correct to mention that, of late, QWL in Indian has emerged as a movement. It is the V>V> Giri National Institute of Labor which took an active lead in familiarizing the concept of QWL in India.

QWL in India seems in practice in a variety of operational systems like workers participation, job enrichment, quality circles, etc. Here, an attempt has been to give an overview of these in terms of their broad coverage and experiences of Indian Organizations with them.

i. Workers participation:
Workers participation is also known as Industrial democracy. The concept of participation means sharing, in an appropriate way, the decision- making powers with the lower levels in the organizations. The basic objective of workers participations is to make workers realize a sense of their importance, pride, freedom and opportunity for self-expression, a feeling of belongingness that help create industrial relations and congenital industrial peace.

ii. Job Enrichment:
Job enrichment refers to the process of making jobs more interesting, satisfying and challenging by adding new contents to jobs. Job enrichment is done through job redesign. In India, job redesign is based on experiments relating to socio- technical system made by Emery. Among the job redesign studies conducted in the Indian context, one of the most significant and off quoted study was conducted in Dynamo Corporation Limited by Professor Nitish De. The study diagnosed that the fragmented work system. Where everyone was concerned with his trade resulted in lack of emotional or rational commitment to the product, extensive forced idle time because of interdependence of tasks, and having done the same jobs for years, workers felt bored with the task and lacked a sense of challenge.

iii. Quality Circle:
The concept of quality circle (QC) originated in the Japanese soil in 1949 with the establishment of the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers as a concern for statistical quality control. QC is defined as a “small group of five to ten workers voluntarily performing quality control activities within the workshop to which they belong".

QC is marked by the following characteristics:

• It is group effort and not an individual effort.
• The participating members are volunteers.
• Their efforts are directed to improve quality within their shops or place of work.
• They meet frequently, often at company cost.
• They represent a cross-section of age, sex and positions in the organization.
• Their concern is to find ways and means to improve quality of their output. QC is formed to achieve the following main objectives:
-To improve and develop an organization.
-To develop respect for human- relations and induce job satisfaction and
-To deploy human capabilities to the fullest extent and draw out their infinite potential.

Grid Organizational Development

Managers differ in terms of the degree of concern that they have for production and people. Combination of these two concerns would give rise to a particular managerial style.

This managerial Grid style corresponds to Ohio (USA) state dimensions of consideration and initiating structure or the Michigan dimensions of employee orientation and production orientation. There are five leadership styles under this grid and they are briefly described below:

1. Impoverished management:
(1,1) has low concern for both production and people . Here leader “Excepts the minimum effort to get the required work done is appropriate to sustain Organization member. This style of management is similar to the laissez – faire style.

2. Country club management:
(1,9) has high concern for people but low concern for production. “Thoughtful action to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable friendly organization atmosphere and work temp”.

3. Task management:
(9,1) has high concern for production but low concern for people. “Efficiency in operations result from arranging conditions for work in such a way that human elements interfere to a min degree’. The style is similar to the autocratic style of leadership.

4. Team management:
(9,9) has high concern for both people and production. “Work accomplishment is from committed people.” Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessary to get the work done while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level.

5. Organizational management:
(5,5) Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get the work done while maintaining morale of people at satisfactory level. This has been shown in the grid at 5,5. The leaders of this style have medium concern for both people and production and try to maintain a balance in two.

The emerging Organizational Development Techniques and Approaches


Emergent Principles of Organizational Design

In response to far- reaching changes in the contextual factors affecting businesses, a number of organizations has been experimenting with innovative approaches to structure, systems, strategy, resource allocation and human resource management. These experiments however have not culminated in a definite form applicable to organizations striving to find ways and means to grapple with increasing turbulence in the environment. The forms are evolving as organizations explore viable options to withstand pressures of change. This has led to the development of at least new perspectives on management necessitated by paradigmatic shift in the world of business.

The emergent principles of design will affect various aspects of organization and management as depicted in table below.

    Conventional Principles   Emerging Principles
Vision/Mission
Strategy
Systems
Structure
Culture
People
  Stable over a longer time
Span planned/top down
Control focused
Pre-determined/fixed Strong/monolithic
Organization/whole-oriented
  Shifting over a shorter time span
Evolving/bottom-up
Responsiveness focused
Emergent/flexible
Weak/pluralistic
Individual/part-oriented


The characteristics of organization designed on the basis of Emergent Principle

With increasing uncertainties in the environment, the envisioning process and the articulation of mission will entail shorter time span on account of frequent shifts in technological breakthroughs and market conditions. In an attempt to continually bridge the gap between strategies and their execution, the planned/top down approach will be supplemented if not replaced by bottom-up approach with active involvement of employees. Strategies, thus, would evolve from the experiences and tacit knowledge of organization members and other stakeholders.

• The organization model of the future will go beyond functional, divisional, matrix and network organizations and will involve alliances , spin- offs and federations that is, organizations operating more in virtual structures with large degrees of self-management and self-directing teams.

• Organization will be heavily dependent on information management. Supply chains will be characterized by cooperative relations between companies through joint ventures, strategic alliances and partnerships.

• Similarly, corporate borders are becoming more blurred as interlinked” ecosystems” of suppliers, producers, and customers emerge. Even basic structural assumptions are being changed. For example, the emergence of robust private equity financing is changing corporate ownership, lifecycles, and performance expectations. Winning companies, using efficiencies gained by new structural possibilities, will capitalize on these transformations.

• Bigger, more complex companies demand new tools to run and manage them. Indeed, improved technology and statistical- control tools have given rise to new management approaches that make even mega- institutions viable.

• Long gone is the day of the “gut instinct” management style. Today’s business leaders are adopting algorithmic decision-making techniques and using highly sophisticated software to run their organizations. Scientific management is moving from a skill that create competitive advantages to an ante that gives companies the right to play the game.

• The hierarchical structure may be retained, but many important decisions will be delegated with relatively little operational supervision. Performance measurements rather than supervision to get the most from self- directed teams of professionals will be emphasized.

• People will elect their leaders. In Mondragon Corporation, which is organized as a collection of over 150 small cooperatives, employees vote for the board of directors and also on important choices before the company.

As organizations strive towards creating futures for their continued existence, the established organizational processes need to be flexible enough to accommodate the new changes. It thus requires adoption of transformational approach to change involving redesign of structures and mental models.

Various contents and transformational approaches to be incorporated into the emerging approaches of OD

1. Incorporate future into the present:
Change is facilitated when organization members are able to incorporate future concerns into their current work. This can be achieved by constituting teams which have both present and future- oriented employees. Also, low- cost experiments with new idea can be entirely new products.

2. Continuous Learning:
In organizations that are increasingly becoming knowledge based accessing knowledge from variety of internal and external sources and managing it enables them to respond and innovate at greater speed. Organizations must create and reinforce a learning and information sharing orientation.

3. Support day-to-day innovation and change:
Many innovations and changes occur on day-to-day basis in teams, on shop floors or in the field, Change- friendly organizations actively support these efforts so that employees are encouraged to think and adopt innovative practices in their products, work processes and services.

4. Leverage diversity:
When people with diverse experiences, expertise and time orientation that is present and future oriented are brought together in a team, they are able to bring in different perspectives to future concerns. Change thus is facilitated if the diversity is leveraged to set new directions leading to innovations. Synergizing the conflicting ideas and views of team members to achieve a common purpose is however a challenge that team members must address constructively.

5. Encourage mavericks:
The mavericks stand for radical change and thus are not part of the mainstream. They are risk takers and often experiment with new ideas and approaches. They are usually sidelined and ignored as they disturb the status quo and question the existing system. They are therefore change champions who must be encouraged to create an environment of entrepreneurship in the organization thereby facilitating organizational transformation.

6. Shelter breakthroughs:
As the existing organization set up is designed to deal with tasks in the conventional way, any breakthroughs that occur are rejected by the system. It may thus be necessary to create a new organization to provide shelter to the breakthrough innovations. Change friendly organizations institutionalize the process by routinely creating small independent units with their own budgets, suppliers, markets and cultures.

7. Provide IT-enabled support:
It – enabled support system must be created to facilitate the change process. In a study being undertaken globally, it has been found that of all factors reviewed; only IT had a significant and positive relationship with performance. The positive impact of IT cab be felt only when it is integrated with other changes in organizations structure and processes. For example, networked organization can function efficiently if it is supported by IT- enabled support system for coordination and control.

8. Develop trust:
Employees are likely to embrace changes when they have trust in thee change agents. The change leaders must be perceived as persons with high credibility and they should demonstrate this in their actions and behaviors. Trust and credibility provide legitimacy to change efforts which in turn reduces likely resistance on the part of employees. Downsizing for example, eroded trust and makes the future change initiatives difficult to implement. Trust has to be built and nurtured as it provides basis for people to respond readily and positively to change efforts.

Summary

In a hyper competitive business environment, incremental and evolutionary changes in organizations are necessary but not sufficient conditions for survival and growth. Most organizations across the globe are attempting to transform the ways they used to conduct their businesses and relate to stakeholders. Transformation involves fundamental changes in the strategic intent, structures, process and culture of the organization. It includes change programs aimed at revitalizing the organization to withstand processes generated by highly turbulent environment. The emerging techniques described above will have to be bent by the organizational managers to suit their own organizational needs to bring out the best in the skills of the workers towards to achievement of targeted goals.
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Review Questions
  • 1. What inputs should a good OD training and development design contain? Discuss the importance of training interventions in designing an organizational development? Explain briefly the various training techniques used in OD?
  • 2. What is Laboratory training in the field of OD? What is Kurt Lewin’s contribution to promote the organizational behavior of the employees for the development of an organization?
  • 3. Explain Role play vis-à-vis OD. Discuss the merits of role play in taking an organization forward.
  • 4. What are the various models in OD. Discuss the steps involved in the Behavioral Modeling modification model.
  • 5. Discuss the concepts of gaming exercise in understanding the organizational behavior and relate it to the development of an organization.
  • 6. What are Encounter Groups in the OD studies?
  • 7. Write detailed notes on:
    • QWL
    • Grid Training in its relevance to OD.
  • 8. Discuss in detail the emerging approaches and techniques in OD.
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