MBA management

WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?


There is much discussion in the academic world of communication as to what actually constitutes communication. Currently, many definitions of communication are used in order to conceptualize processes by which people navigate and assign meaning. Communication is also understood as the exchange of understanding.

We might say that communication consists of transmitting information from one person to another. In fact, many scholars of communication take this as a working definition, and use Lass well’s maxim, “who says what to whom in what channel with what effect, “as a means of definition for communication.

A simple communication model is one with a sender transferring a message containing information to a receiver.

Communication stands so deeply rooted in human behaviors and the structures of society that scholars have difficulty thinking of it while excluding social or behavioral events.

DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATION


1. “Communication is the transfer of information from the sender to the receiver with the information being understood by the receiver.” ___Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich.

2. “Communication is the sum of all things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. ”___Louis Allen.

3. “Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver. ” ______G .G. Brown.

4. “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages” __Fred G. Meyer.

MEANING


The word communication has been derived from the Latin word “communis” which means common, which consequently implies that it is common understanding. It is defined in many ways. Generally, it is understood as a process of exchange of ideas, views, facts, feelings, etc. Basically it is the process of exchange of information between two or more persons to reach common understanding.

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNITION


The elements of communication are as follows:

1. Sender: Sender is a person who conveys his thoughts or ideas to the receiver. The sender represents source of communication.

2. Message: It is the content of ideas, feelings, suggestions, order, etc to be communicated.

3. Encoding: It is the process of converting the message into communication symbols such as words, pictures and gestures.

4. Media: It is the path through which an encoded message is transmitted to the receiver. The channel may be in written form, face to face, phone call, interest, etc.

5. Decoding: It is the process of converting encoded symbols of the sender.

6. Receiver: The person who receives communication of the sender.

7. Feedback: It includes all those actions of receiver indicating that he has received and understood the message of the sender.

8. Noise: Noise is an obstruction or hindrance to communication. This hindrance may be caused to sender, message or receiver. Some examples of noise are:- * Ambiguous symbols that lead to faulty encoding;
* An inattentive receiver;
* Gestures that may distort the message;
* Prejudices obstructing the understanding of the message.

elements of communication

COMMUNICATION LOOP/ THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION


Every bit of message communicated undergoes a certain process involving more than one person. Nobody communicates to a vacuum or wilderness. Communication is considered effective if it receives the desired result, response or reaction. All Communications are related to some context. In any context, a communication loop exists to enable successful communication. At one end of the loop is the sender of message or information. He receives a stimulus to send a message across. Thee stimulus may be external or internal. There might be an urging from an outside source which is external stimulus . the internal stimulus might be a desire from within the person to send across a message or information.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION


Why do we communicate at all? In general terms they are as follows:

1. We communicate to persuade: It means that we want someone to do something and this desire of ours is communicated. The mother patting the child to stop crying, the advertiser displaying a model in a new T- Shirt and the politician haranguing his audience to vote for him are all having the same objective of persuading, while communicating it differently.

2. We communicate in order to give or provide information: The science teacher demonstrating an experiment, the bank announcing a reduction in interest rates and the finance minister, presenting the budget are all communicating to provide information.

3. We communicate seeking information: A Passer by asking you the way to the post-office, the student asking the teacher for some clarification or the investigating policeman making discreet enquiries are all seeking information by using this communication skill.

4. We communicate to express our emotions like courage or fear, joy or sorrow, satisfaction or disappointment with appropriate gestures and words. Some people have unlimited skill to mote, (I,e. to display excessive emotion) to suit the occasion. Our politicians are capable of emoting well, which by itself is a communication skill.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION


Though all communication objectives can be classified as shown above, business communication has specific objectives. They are:

1. Information related communication: Information on a product, service or activity of an organization to the people concerned, and information about the product, service or activity from the people concerned to the organization come under this category.

2. Persuasion related communication: Persuasion is related to the promotional activity of a company, It is employed to promote sales and service. Persuasion related communication calls for tact and an understanding on the part of the communicator.

3. Motivation related communication: A company has to motivate its workforce to turnout better work, and its customers to buy its products and service. Motivation can be done only by understanding the mindset of the receiver. Business organizations have to continuously resort to motivation to succeed in their business aims.

IMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION


The importance of communication can never be over- emphasized communication is the ‘life blood’ of all organizations. It is of vital importance to the well being of a state, a business enterprise, a religion and other social or cultural identities including the family. The success of a business enterprise is directly proportional to the level of communication maintained by it.

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION TO INDIVIDUALS


Individuals also need to acquire and hone their communication skills. The success of an individual at familial level, in the neighborhood and at his job depends on his ability to communicate. Who would like to have a sour faced neighbor either at home or office? Communication is a primary responsibility in many careers such as customer relations, labour relations, marketing, personnel and public relations, sales and teaching. Career advancement is easy for a person with good communication skills. The importance of communication skill to managerial and accounting positions is well recognized now. The ability to communicate is essential for promotions and advancement.

He converts the message into a cod. This process is called encoding. The sender is also called the encoder. He choose the appropriate verbal or non-verbal code and puts the message into that code. Then the encoder transmits the coded message through an appropriate medium.

The sender or encoder chooses the appropriate medium based on several factors such as the receiver, the message, its urgency or otherwise, He may choose a non-verbal signal, body language, speech, writing or any other available medium to transmit the encoded message. The message gets transmitted to the receiver. The receiver decodes the message and perceives it. Misinterpretation may arise even if there is interference in the medium. The receiver’s response or reaction is the feedback that the sender gets. The feedback may again be a signal or an action.

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONS


1. Acts as a basis of coordination: Communication acts as a basis of coordination. It provides coordination among different departments, activities and persons in the organization. Such coordination is provided by explaining the organizational goals, the mod of their achievement and interpersonal relationships between different individuals.

2. Helps in smooth working of an enterprise: Communication makes possible for smooth and unrestricted working of an enterprise. All the organizational interactions depend on communication. The job of a manager is to coordinate the human and physical elements of an organization into efficient and an active working unit that achieves its common objectives.

3. Acts as a basis of decision making: Communication provides needed information for decision making. In its absence, it may not be possible for the managers to take any meaningful decision.

4. Increased managerial efficiency: Communication is essential for quick and effective performance of managerial functions. The management conveys the goals and targets, issues instructions, allocates jobs and responsibilities, and looks after the performance of subordinates. Communication is involved in all these aspects. Thus, communication lubricates the entire organization and keeps the organization at work with efficiency.

5. Promotes cooperation and industrial peace: Efficient operation is the aim of all prudent management. It may be possible only when there is industrial pace in the factory and mutual cooperation between management and workers. The two way communication promotes cooperation and mutual understanding between the management and workers.

6. Establishes effective leadership: communication is the basis of leadership. Effective communication helps to influence subordinates .While influencing people, leader should possess good communication skills.

7. Boosts morale and provides motivation: An efficient system of communication enables management to motivate, influence and satisfy subordinates. Good communication assists the workers in their adjustment with the physical and social aspect of work. It improves good human relations in the industry.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION


1. ORAL COMMUNICATION


In oral communication, both parties to the communication process, sender and receiver exchange their ideas through oral words either in face to face communication or through electronic devices like telephone and fax.

MERITS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION

1. Easy communication: Oral communication is the easiest one as it saves time and cost involved in decoding the ideas into words. It can be used to send the message instantly to the receiver. With the development of telephone facilities, two or more persons can exchange their messages orally even if they are at distant places. This is the reason that oral communication is used most frequently.

2. Effective: Oral communication is an effective system because in face to face oral communication, possibility of use of gestural communication, that is, emphasizing any part of the message through facial expression and movement of part of the body, is increased. Therefore, the message is passed in its true sense.

3. Instant feedback: In oral communication, there is instant feedback for the message transmitted. Where two way oral communication is used, feedback process is an integral part of the communication process. Instant feedback process is an integral part of the communication process. Instant feedback from the receiver allows the sender to recast his message offering clarification to what has been said earlier.

4. Facility for informal communication: This allows employees to communicate their feelings and views which they may not like to communicate in writing. It may be mentioned that such feelings and views are very important for managers as these reflect the actual situation at the workplace. In the absence of oral communication, perhaps, these feelings and views are hard to be understood.

DEMERITS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION

1. Lack of proof: Oral communication has a significant demerit that there is no proof of what has been communicated. Though in normal circumstances, it may not affect the functioning of the two parties involved in the communication process, it may become a serious handicap where thee proof of communication is required for future references.

2. Lack of authenticity: Sometimes, Oral communication may lack authenticity. This may happen not only in informal communication but in formal communication too. Oral orders may not be taken so seriously as compared to a written order; oral advice may not be taken seriously as compared to a written one, and so on.

3. Time consuming: Sometimes, oral communication becomes a time consuming process because both the parties to the communication do not adhere to the actual and precise subject-matter. Many more items that are irrelevant the communication process. This takes significant time of the managers and their effectiveness is affected adversely.

GRAPEVINE

Large organizations, where there are a large number of people working closely, generate certain informal or unofficial channels of communication. These channels exist with or without official patronage. Even if they are officially and secretly patronized, they are not authentic. This type of communication is generally called “Grapevinecommunication. Grapevine communication is an informal, unofficial, horizontal channel of communication because generally peer groups participate in it.

ADVANTAGES OF GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION

Grapevine communication brings about a strong bond among peer groups. It develops because of the involvement of the persons connected with an organization. It gives mental satisfaction to the participants and gradually reduces emotional outbursts and reactions. It keeps the employees anticipating and acts as a buffer against shockwaves. It is fast and can supplement formal channels. It provides informal feedback on the charges contemplated by the management.

DISADVANTAGES OF GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION

Grapevine is definitely dangerous to the health of an organization if allowed to grow without monitoring. Grapevine channel distorts or exaggerates the content of a message. It has the potential to spread unnecessary gossip. It may result in character assassination and personal vilification of individuals. It may provoke sudden unwanted and unexpected reactions from emotionally unstable people.

2. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION


The written form of communication in an organization includes letters, notes, circulars, etc. With the introduction of internet, instant written communication has been facilitated.

MERITS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Authenticity: Written communication is authentic whether it is in the form of orders or organizational manuals. When any thing comes in writing, people tend to take it more seriously and it becomes binding on them. Therefore, it has much force as compared to oral communication.

Proof for future reference: Written communication provides proof for future reference and this is the biggest merit of written communication. In the society, we learn a lot of things about the past because the written communication. In the organizational context, many records are maintained for future reference such as policies, procedures, rules, performance records, employee information, and so on. All such records are in written form. Besides, many orders must be given in writing for record purpose.

Communication to distant places: Written communication is useful in sending and receiving messages at distance places where the contact may not be possible through alternative sources. Thus, it saves time and cost to that extent, presently, fax system and internet have provided facilities to send written messages to distant places.

DEMERITS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Costly: Written communication is a costly affair as compared to oral communication. Cost involved is both in terms of time and money. It has to be drafted to be more precise, clear and authentic, leaving no scope for ambiguity. Moreover, in preparing written communication, cost is involved on stationery, etc.

Overemphasis on formalization: Written communication becomes a formal means. While some degree of formalization is essential, its overemphasis hampers efficiency. In bureaucratic organizations where too much emphasis is put on formal written communication, inefficiency emerges because the efforts are directed towards maintaining written records rather than achieving results.

Lack of Secrecy: Sometimes, communication requires secrecy particularly when the information is a sensitive one. In the written form, the message comes in record and leakage of that may be detrimental to the organization concerned.

3. NONVERBAL COMMUNITION


Meaning: Non verbal communication can take the form of body movements, the intonations or emphasis given to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and the receiver of the message. Looking into the role of non verbal communication, a new academic study of body movements, known as Kinesics has been developed.

Definition: It refers to the study of gestures, facial configurations, and other movements of the body to communicate meanings. However, it is relatively a new field and it has been subject ti far more conjecture and popularizing than the research finding support.

ASPECTS OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION (NVC)

I. A body position or movement not by itself have a precise or universal meaning, but when it is linked with spoken words, it may by itself have a precise or universal meaning, but when it is linked with spoken words, it may give fuller meaning to a sender’s message.

ii. Sometimes, there may be a contradiction between verbal and non-verbal communication. The literal meaning of sender’s words may be different than what he conveys through non-verbal communication. Therefore, it is important for the receiver to be alert to this aspect of communication. He should look for non verbal clues as well as listen to the literal meaning of the sender’s words.

iii. Actions speak louder than words on the long run. A manager who says one thing but does another thing will soon find that his employees listen to mostly what he does rather than what he says. When there is a difference between what one says and what one does, we call that a ‘communication credibility gap.’

4. PICTORIAL COMMUNICATION


Organisations make extensive use of pictures such as blueprints, progress, charts, maps, and visual aids in training programmes, scale models of products, and similar devices. The use of such means of communication is increasing in training and education as well as in organizational communication, but to prove its effectiveness, pictures should be combined with well chosen words and actions to tell the complete message.

TYPES OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION


There are two types of business communication in an organization

1. Internal Communication
2. External Communication

1. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION


Communication within an organization is called “Internal Communication “.

It includes all communication within an organization. It may be informal or a formal function or department providing communication in various forms to employees.

i. Formal Communication : It follows the course laid down in the organization structure of the enterprise. Members of the enterprise are supposed to communicate with each other strictly as per the channel laid down in the structure.

ii. Informal communication : human beings do not always follow the pattern of relationships provided in the organization structure.

Effective internal communication is a vital means of addressing organizational concerns. Good communication may help to increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity and profits and decrease grievances and Turnover.

INTERNAL COMMUNICATION MAY BE :

• Upward Communication
• Downward Communication
• Horizontal / Lateral Communication

(A) UPWARD COMMUNICATION

Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management. Without upward communication management works in a vacuum, not knowing if message have been received properly or if other problems exist in the organization.

By definition, Communication is a two way affair. Yet for effective two way Organizational communication to occur, it must begin from the bottom.

Upward Communication is a means for staff to :
• Exchange information
• Offer ideas
• Express enthusiasm
• Achieve job satisfaction
• Provide feedback

(B) DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION

Information flows from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important and what is valued. Downward communication generally provides enabling information which allows a subordinate to do something. If is eminently suited to an organization in which the line of authority runs distinctly downwards. It continuous to hold a prominent place even there, but it has to be supplemented by other channels of communication.

It helps to specify directives about the job being entrusted to a subordinate. To explain policies and organizational procedures .To apprise the subordinate of their performance. To give the subordinates information about the rationale of their job so that they understand the significance of their job in relation with their organizational goals.

Downward communication may be both oral or written or gestural on the basis of the method used for the method used for the purpose in communication.

(c) HORIZONTAL /LATERAL COMMUNICATION

Horizontal communications normally involves coordinating information and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperative or collaborate. Communication among employee at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of the work. Horizontal communication is essential for :

• Solving problems
• Accomplishing tasks
• Improving teamwork
• Building goodwill
• Boosting efficiency

In addition to these formal channels of communication there, exists in every organization informal channels, often called the grape wine, that does not arise out of organizational needs, but that is nevertheless, an integral part of the communication system. Rumors that are all the time spreading in any organization follow the grape wine.

2. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION


Communication with people outside the company is called “External Communication.” Supervisors Communicate with sources outside the organization, such as vendors and customers.

It leads to better
• Sales volume
• Public credibility
• Operation efficiency
• Company profit

external communication

SEMANTIC BARRIERS

1. Interpretation of words: Most of the communication is carried on through words, whether spoken or written. But words are capable of communicating a variety of meanings. It is quit possible that the receiver of a message does not assign the same meaning to a word as the transmitter had intended. This may lead to miscommunication. Murphy and pack in their book’, Effective Business Communication’ mention that in an abridged dictionary, the little word ‘run’ has 71 meanings as a verb, another 35 as a noun, and 4 more as an adjective. If this word occurs in the message, the receiver is at liberty to interpret it in any of the 110 senses, but if communication is to be perfect, he must assign to it the same meaning as existed in the sender’s mind when he used it.

2. By passed instruction: By passing is said to have occurred if the sender and the receiver of the message attribute different meaning to the same words of the same meaning. Murphy and Pack have given a classic example of how bypassed instruction can play havoc with the communication process.

3. Denotations and connotations: Words have two types of meanings; denotative and connotative. The literal meaning of a word is called its denotative meaning. It just informs and names object without indicating any positive or negative qualities. Words like table, book, accounts, and meeting are denotative.

PROCESS OF EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION

The importance of the two-way nature of communication in which the success of the process depends heavily upon the sender receiving feedback. The Sender requires assurance that his/her points are being received and understood, e.g., on a notice board, if a petition has been put up, the group organizing the petition need others to put their names on the petition to give feedback, and show that the message is being spread across. It is the use of a common system of symbols, signs and behavior in exchange for information, ideas and emotions.

Sender -----→ Message-----→ Visual / oral /written -----→ Recipient

The small number of employees in a small organization means that most of the communication is informal. In a larger business, communication becomes more formal as each employee/ worker will come into personal contact with few others outside their own area of work. There are lots of different types of communication. Some of them combine with other methods as both types of communication can be used.

Formal : Communication which are routed through what have been known as ‘Official channels ‘ for example, a written memorandum from a managing director to his /her departmental heads to all a meeting.

Informal : Information is passed on by words of mouth among interested colleagues who have received it from various sources, e.g. visits.

Diagonal : There is no obvious line of authority through which a middle manager may want a service or job to be done.

Vertical :The principal channel for routing directions, instructions, and policies from top decision makers down through the organization to the people, who at various levels will implement them.

Verbal : Includes speaking to another person over the telephone, face to face etc, in a discussion, debate, interview, presentation etc.

Non- Verbal :There is no spoken language e.g., eye contact, body language, sign language etc.

Visual : When information is displayed in various ways, e.g., tables, advertisements etc.

ADVANTAGES OF EXTRNAL COMMUNICATION

Computerized electronic telecommunications have created a global village in terms of immediacy within which people across the world can share conversations, televised pictures, and interactive software of VDU’s maps, graphics, and circuits. The process of making decisions has also increased in speed due to the instant access to databases of information held in huge mainframe computer memory banks. A disadvantage to all of this would be that employees, managers etc wouldn’t understand and provide feedback to the large amounts of information inputted everywhere. Fax, mail, telex, tele /video conferencing and telephone link-ups now have more easy making complex, policy and strategic decisions which can be made across the world instantaneously.

Due to the electronic technology, jobs, working locations and cultures are likely to change. The term ‘telecommunication; is already, jobs, working locations and cultures are likely to change. The term ‘telecommunication’ is already being used for people who work from home ,who are linked to the office by modem and computer enable a manager, secretary, etc to access worldwide communication links without even having to move from their desk.

The amount of face to face oral communication, across the office desk or around tables will also decrease because of computer based videos, telephone or computer screen hook ups.

The advantages to this method are :

• Speed of transmission (Wan).

• Versatility (Fax can transmit text, number, graphics, artwork and photographs all on one side of A4. Tele and computer conferencing provide interpersonal exchanges visually and via VDU screens).

• Accuracy ( Instant message reading, and checking of electronic circuits operating between sending and receiving equipment’s during the transmission of high speed ‘bits ’of the message in packet switching of computer data, ensure the message is accurately received in remote locations ).

• Feedback exchange (Computerized telecommunications allow for a virtually simultaneous exchange of information and responses).

Letters can be used for internal communication but are mainly used for external communication. The advantages to written letters are :

• Provides written communication.
• Visual information is included.
• Can range from one to many pages.
• Doesn’t use any electronic means so is a lot cheaper.
• A written record of the message will be kept.
• The message is communicated in written format and therefore should be unambiguous.
• Enables long distance communication to take place.

BARRIERS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION


Communication, as explained earlier, is the process of transmitting information. If the information, as it is present in the mind of the transmitter, is transferred unchanged into the mind of the receiver, we say that a perfect act of communication has taken place. If we recall how many times we have had an experience of miscommunication, we shall realize that there does not exist any such thing as may be described as perfect communication.

WRONG CHOICE OF MEDIUM

In one of the earlier Sections, We have discussed the various media of communication available to us oral, written, Visual, audio-visual, computer-based, etc. All these media have their relative merits and limitations. While a properly chosen medium can add to the effectiveness of communication, an unsuitable medium may act as a barrier to it. Let us consider the following situation.

A salesman has to submit a report on the comparative sales figures of the last five years. If he writes a lengthy paragraph incorporating the information, or talks on phone, he will fail to communicate an instantaneous process.

An employee wants to express his regrets to his supervisor over his misconduct. In this case a written explanation alone may prove to be ineffective. Face-to-face probably be the best. Let him speak very little, but let him look remorseful; his supervisor will be satisfied and the whole matter will be amicably communication will settled.

A manager wants to compliment an employee for a distinguished performance. Shall h send a peon with the memo? Don’t we know memos are usually resented? The manager should choose a medium that transmits his compliments with a personal touch.

PHYSICAL & MECHANICAL BARRIERS

Noise is quite often a barrier to communication. In factories, oral communication is rendered difficult by the loud noise of machines. Electronic noise like blaring often interferes in communication by telephone or loudspeaker system. The word ‘noise’ is also used to refer to all kinds of physical interference like illegible handwriting ,smudged copies of duplicated typescript, poor telephone connection, etc.

Time and distance: Time and distance also act as barriers to as the smooth flow of communication. The use of telephone along with computer technology has made communication very fast has, to a large extent, overcome the space barrier. However, sometimes mechanical breakdown render these facilities ineffective.

Semantic Barriers: Semantics is the branch of linguistics dealing with the meaning of words and sentences, Semantic barriers are concerned with problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding message into words or impressions. Normally, Such barriers result on account of use of different interpretations listed below:

1. Badly expressed messages.
2. Symbols with different meanings.
3. Faulty translation.
4. Unclarified assumptions.
5. Technical Jargons.
6. Body language and gesture decoding.

KINDS OR TYPES OF BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION


There are several obstacles that tend to distort the flow of the messages. Such distortion leads to misunderstanding and frictions among the members of the organization. These barriers do not permit healthy human relationships and they are injurious to teamwork and morale. Therefore it is necessary to analyse and remove the barriers to communication. The various barriers to communication may be described under three heads:

• Organizational barriers.
• Mechanical barriers.
• Personal barriers.

ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS

Organisational barriers arise due to inadequate or improper policies, rules and facilities regarding communication. These are :

1. Ambiguous policies, Rules and Procedures

Organisational policies, rules and procedures lay down the communication channels and the subject-matter of communication. When these policies and rules are not clear, flow of communication is not smooth.

2. Status Patterns

Formal relationships and status symbols highlight the position or rank of individuals. The subordinates become conscious of their distance from the center of authority and this awareness tends to widen the communication gap between supervisor and subordinates.

3. Long Chain of Command

In complex organization structure, there are several levels of authority. Formal communication has to pass through this chain. Lack of meetings, conference, suggestions schemes, grievances procedure, social and cultural gathering and open door system hampers effective communication.

MECHANICAL BARRIERS

Mechanical barriers arise due to problems in communication channels. These barriers are as follows:
1. Overloading.
2. Semantic barriers.
3. Noise.

PERSONAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS

Most of the failure in communication arises due to faults on the part of the sender or the receiver of the message. The important personal or human barriers are given below:

1. Lack of attention or interest.
2. Failure to communicate.
3. Hasty conclusion.
4, Distrust of communication.
5. Love for status quo.
6. Improper state of mind.
7. Fear of challenge to authority.
8. Lack of conductance (on consanguinities or superiors).
9. Unfeelingness to communicate.
10. Lack of proper incentives.
11. Pour retention, and
12. Premature elevation.

MAKING COMMUNICATION EFFCTIVE


• Clarify ideas before communication: The problem to be communicated to subordinates should be clear in all its perspective to the executive himself. The entire problem should be studied in depth, analysed and stated in such a manner that is clearly conveyed to subordinates.

• Communicate according to needs of the receiver: The level of understanding of the receiver should be crystal clear to the communicator. The manager must adjust his communication according to the level of his subordinates in terms of education and understanding.

• Consult others before communicating: Participation and involvement of sub ordinates may help to gain ready acceptance and willing cooperation from them.

• Be aware of languages, tone and content of message: The contents of the message, tone, and language used, manner in which the message is to be communicated are the important aspects of effective communication.

• Convey things of help and value to listeners: While conveying message to others, it is better to know the interests and needs of the people with whom you are communicating. If the message relates directly or indirectly to such interests and needs, It certainly evokes response from the person being communicated.

• Follow up communication: There should b regular follow up and review on the instructions given to subordinates. Such follow up measures help in removing hurdles, if any, in implementing the instructions.

• Ensure proper feedback.

• Communicate for present as well as future goals.

IMPORTANCE OF AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION


Internal Communication Assumes Importance When

(i) Business has grown in size.
(ii) Business activities become extremely complex.
(iii) Effective Business Correspondence Promotes the Spirit of understanding and co-operation.

External Communication is carried out with

(a) Government Agencies and Departments.
(b) Distribution retailers, Individual Customers etc.

LISTENING


Listening is an art, and like art, and like all art, mastery requires practice. One should use hard listening for facts, details, information and directions, and can use soft listening for feelings, moods and unstated messages. Anybody can improve hard and soft listening skills by intense practicing.

WHAT IS LISTENING

People sometimes make the mistake if thinking that listening and basically the same thing. They are not. Hearing is a physiological process, whereas listening is a psychological process. Hearing is nothing more than a biological function of our bodies. Listening, on the other hand, occurs only when we mindfully choose to attach meaning to what we hear. In other words, I can hear you without listening to you. In order to listen to you, however, I must first be able to hear you. So haring is a necessary component of listening, but listening entails the added dimension of psychological processing.

According to the International Listening Association Listening can b defined “As the psychological process of receiving (hearing), attending to constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken or non-verbal messages.“

Listening skills are vitally important to our relationships because so much of our communication time is spent listening. Essentially, we communicate time by speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

THE SIER MODEL OF CRITICAL LISTENING

The model that can help us understand the dimensions of critical thinking is the SIER Model. The model shows how critical listening depends on a four-step process that begins with hearing.

REACT: Assign worth to messages.
EVALUATE: Judge message’s strength and weakness.
INTERPREET: Understand message.
SENSE: Hear message.
THE ETHICAL LISTENER: Tips For Improving.

Critical Listening skills : Research shows that critical listening is both important and difficult that we grasp only about 50 percent of what we hear, Fortunately, research also suggest that we can improve our ability to listen effectively by employing certain strategies. Moreover, ethical listeners constantly.

Strive to improve their listening skills. An ethical choice as something we believe we “ought” to do rather than something we “have” to do. You must strive to improve your listening skills to honestly demonstrate respect for yourself and for the speaker.

BAD HABITS:

1. Becoming distracted.
2. Faking attention.
3. Being unprepared.
4. Prejudging the speaker.
5. Mentally arguing.
5. Jumping to conclusions.
6. Listening too hard.

FOR A GOOD LISTENENING SKILL

1) Pay attention.
2) Express interest.
3) Pay attention to body language.
4) Establish rapport.
5) Use questions that encourage responses.
6) Avoid assumptions.
7) Use silence.

OBJECTIVES & PRINCIPLES OF FEEDBACK


Feedback is one of the elements of communication process. Feedback in communication is required to ensure that the receiver has received the message and understood it in the same sense as the receiver intended. Feedback is a common feature is a common feature of all systems whether man-made or natural. Feedback is a system that helps in understanding whether the system is working properly. If it is not working properly, corrective actions are taken.

OBJECTIVES OF FEDBACK


1. It should be descriptive rather than evaluative.
2. It should be specific rather than general.
3. Should focus on behavior, not on personality.
4. Should have both positive & negative feedback.
5. It should build trust.
6. Should understand the “context.”
7. Should know how to give Feedback.

feedback

PRINCIPLES OF FEEDBACK


Specific

Timely

Actionable

Measurable

Achievable

Positive

Non-Evaluative

Establish a Dialogue

Thus feedback has its own objectives and principles. From the above objectives and principles of the message the sender of the message will chalk out his action according to the feedback he receives from the message receiver. Because of this reason, feedback is treated as an energizing factor thereby changing the course of action in the communication process.

ANALYZING GOALS OR OBJECTIVES

Analyzing the audience will tell you what your listeners want to accomplish by attending your presentation. Now you need to determine what exactly that you want to accomplish. What you might accomplish is the goal of your presentation. Analyzing the goal of your presentation is a way of providing direction and control over an otherwise undefined situation.

(a) Establishing Goals

For a presentation is not separate from the presentation itself, nor is it separate from the contributive acts of seeking counsel from your superior, assembling information about the new product line and its marketing, preparing a plan for the presentation, or working out of details of visuals and other support for the presentation. When you analyse goals for the presentation, you structure the presentation, create its meaning, define it and give shape to what you want to present. Your goal might to be to :

A) Persuade the audience to do something

B) Inform the audience to generate interest

C) Inspire the audience to affect its attitudes

(i) To gather, disseminate and exchange information :
Presentations can be used for gathering and exchanging information. The audience should carry a message home.

(ii) To exercise influence over the organizational process.

In the presentation a decision may be made to adopt plan, thus creating an opportunity for organizational change.

(iii) To create, change or modify individual and group identities :
A successful presentation can attract the superiors in the company. Allowing a boss to make a presentation is a good way carrying the boss along

(iv) To provide entertainment or perform a cultural ritual :
Speeches are often given on the occasions, and a good speech is generally remembered by the audience.

(b) Presentation Skills

Students are often asked to deliver individual or group presentation as part of their units of study. As with all other assignments the first thing to do is to check the unit outline to examine the presentation task, the criteria to b adopted for assessing the presentation, the length of time allowed for the presentation, and requirement.

(c) Objectives of Presentation Skills

(i) Benefits to Individual

• Plans, develop and deliver multiple presentation skills.

• Receive useful per and facilitator feedback for the individual.

• Learn how to access and engage your audience.

• Develop techniques to align your verbals, vocals and visuals with your message.

• Answer participant’s questions.

• Demonstrate facility in handling difficult participants.

• Identify best practice strategies for using paper and electronic materials to support your message.

(ii) Benefit to Organization

• Improved communication to employees, management and customers

• More concise information

• Create a personalized feedback checklist of presentation skills

• Identify technique to improve organizational presentation skills

• Apply verbal and non –verbal communication skills

• Identify the traits of experienced skills

• Diagnose your personal characteristics of areas of improvement

(d) Objectives to Presentation Skills

1. Demonstrate confidence in front of colleagues, customers and friends.

2. Understand behavioral patterns and how to adapt to others.

3. Utilize crystal clear communication models in order to maintain rapport.

4. Examine the most up to date negotiation, communication and presentation skills and be confident to use them in work place’.

5. Understand the innovative business tools of nlp, emotional intelligence and behavioral techniques and be able to model those skills when working with others.

6. Use appropriate body language, voice and tone in order to create a positive and lasting first impression with every customer facing opportunity.

7. Ensure a win-win situation in every negotiation.

8. Be a more confident and effective team negotiator and presenter.

9. Have a crystal clear strategy within your organization.

10. Have a greater understanding of behaviors within the organization.

11. Have innovative strategies for working with others within the organization.

12. Customers should see your negotiation as world class and professional.

13. Conflict resolution is seen as a challenge and not a threat.

14. Evaluate your presentation skills against personal and professional standards.

15. Identify techniques to improve your presentation skills.

FOR EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION

1. Use Slides / slide
2. Use PP
3. Use OHP
4. Use LCD Projectors
5. Use 16mm Projectors for film/ documentaries
6. Use MAPS / Diagrams
7. Use charts (bar, die )
8. Use Pictures / Ads etc
9. Use Hand-outs
10. Us White boards/ Chart Boards
11. Use Exhibits

USES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION


Speech skills are necessary for any individual to participate in public events, or as pioneer rhetorical critics Lester Thonssed and A. Craig Baird noted some fifty years ago, “ The fundamental purpose of oral discourse is social co-ordination or control.” Speech skill must be sharpened through study and practice, otherwise, you may not be able to participate with maximum effect in public events. You take course in public speaking for social, protective and intellectual reasons-and of course to improve your own self-confidence and sense of empowerment.

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION


Corporate communication is defined as communication which goes to all staff. Corporate communication serves as the liaison between an organization and its public.

Organisations can strategically communicate to their audiences through public relations and advertising. This may involve an employee newsletter or video, crisis management with the news media, special events planning, building product value and communicating with stockholders, clients or donors.

Corporate communication is defined as any method by which a company communicates with anyone—either internally or externally. Public relation is part of corporate communication. Other components of corporate communication are investor relations, employee or internal communication, advertising, marking communication, and government or labor relations.

NATURE AND IMPORTANCE

• Strong corporate culture.

• Coherent corporate identity.

• Reasonable corporate philosophy.

• Genuine sense of corporate citizenship.

• An appropriate and professional relationship with the press, including quick, responsible ways of communicating in a crisis.

• Understanding of communication tools and technologies.

• Sophisticated approaches to global communications.

How an organization communicates with its employees, its extended audiences, the press and its customers bring its value to life. Corporate communication is all about managing perceptions and ensuring:

• Effective and timely dissemination of information.

• Positive corporate image.

• Smooth and affirmative relationship with all stakeholders.

Corporate Communication


Corporate communication is more an art than a science. Its intellectual foundations began with the Greeks and Romans with rhetoric. Its body of knowledge is interdisciplinary, drawing on the methods and findings of: anthropology; communications; language and linguistics; management and marketing; semiotics; sociology; psychology.

Definition

According to Paul Argnti, “By corporate communication we mean the corporation’s voice and the images it projects of itself on a world stage populated by its various audiences, or what we refer to as its constituencies. Included in this field are areas such as corporate reputation, corporate advertising and advocacy, employee communications, investor relations, government relations, media management and crisis communication.”

Objectives of Corporate Communication


The objectives to be achieved by following the corporate communication systems are follows :

1. Creating Public Image

The larger social, economic, and cultural climates have to be formed by the corporations, so that they may develop an image in front of the general public. Corporations use it to lead, motivate, persuade, and inform employs---and the public as well. Understanding corporate communication provides the vision a company requires in an information driven economy for strategic planning.

2. “Opportune moment“

The corporation should cultivate an “opportune moment,” wherein there is a free flow of communication from one person to another or a person to group or from one group to another group.

3. Understand and Capitalize

The corporate communication in the business organisations must direct towards understanding and capitalizing on the psychologies of the constituencies.

4. Communication Technology

The business houses should try to bring in the best mix of communication channels like videoconferences, e-mails, faxing, etc. This would help the corporates in achieving the desired objectives in the communication.

5. Ethical Dimension

The basic objective of the corporate communication process is to promote the morale and welfare of its employees, maintaining cordial relationship with the external sources of influences like government, other corporations, public. etc.

6. Institutional Development

Several universities in the United States and in Europe are adding corporate communication degrees at the graduate and undergraduate levels. An institute devoted to the theory and practice of corporate communication would provide a national and international focus for this increasingly important field.

Functions of Corporate Communication Activities


1. Strategy Formation and Implementation

The first and the basic function of the corporate communication activity is to formulate excellent strategies which lead towards the accomplishment of their objectives and not just preparing but implementing those plans so that they would help in follow-up of actions by their employees and thereby making the communication process effective.

2. Corporate Identity, image and Reputation

The image of a business agency is the top most priority. If the corporation loses its image in the market and in public, then there would be no one to deal with them, so an effective and healthy communication with others will help in raising the standards, developing the identity and increasing the reputation of the corporation.

3. Corporate Advertising and Advocacy

There would be no meaning in a corporate communication process if there is no expansion or publicity of it. Thus a corporate communication system should indulge in advertising itself and create a strong advocacy among its enterprise so that the communication process has some ethic or value in the corporate sectors.

4. Customer Relations

The most important function of the corporate communication process is to retain as well as increase the number of customers it possesses. This would help them expand their business activities, also increase the turnover of the corporation.

5. Employee Communication

The relation between the employees decides the efficiency and betterment in the working of the corporate communication process .So, the function to be performed by the corporation is that, it should develop a better communication process which is complexity free and also free from any other bias which will surely let the corporate communication system in being successful.

6. Investor relations

The corporate communication process of the business agencies should try to turn on the interests of the investors which would help in getting more funds, credits and other monetary assistance in any crisis. Thus, for doing so, the communication with the investors should be well.

7. Government Affairs

The communication process in a corporation must be designed to function in such a way that no external forces like the changes in policies of Government could affect the day- to-day working. It should try to satisfy the government through its effective communication procedures.

8. Community Relations

The most important factor which affects the working of the corporate communication process is the community or the external society , Therefore, community must be kept in mind while working out th functioning of the corporation’s communication process.

9. Media Relations

The presence of media itself makes any organization shine. But, if media comes with any bad remarks means the corporation may lose its fame and goodwill so there must be some professional communicators appointed by the corporation in making the communication system with the media effective.

10. Crisis Communication

Every corporate communication system must consist of those employees who are experienced as well as qualified enough to handle the tough crisis. They should possess the ability to make the other employees follow his directions and not panic under any crisis.

11. Management of New Communication Technologies

The employees in the corporations must be trained to communicate in such a way that they are able to handle any other situation technologies and never give up. Technologies, such as the internet , underscore the global character of communication. In practice, corporate communication is a strategic tool for the corporation to gain a competitive advantage. This type of training in the corporate communication process would make them achieve the objectives.

STAGES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING


The full- length speech should be based on a simple three part structure such as:

1. Introduction.
2. Body, and
3. Conclusion.

1. Introduction

The introductory part first consists of a salutation. Example: ladies and gentleman,” “dear friends,” “dear share holders.”

The salutation to be used depends on the persons for whom the speech is meant.

The introductory remarks should cover the aim and purpose of the speech and the occasion.

i. Establishing rapport: It involves pointing out a common bond between the speaker and the audience. It is normally done by referring to the previous speaker’s words, the occasion for the meeting, the chairman’s remarks and expressing pleasure at the opportunity to take part in the activities. These are called opening sentences. They express thee speaker’s pleasure in being present and his gratitude for the invitation.

ii. Focusing attention: In every speech, there will be a central point. Attention of audience must be drawn to this point so that the audience will have a line of thought to follow. This can be done by starting the subject of the talk,e.g., “I am speaking today, on the reason of environmental problem.”

2. The Body

The body consists of the message to be conveyed to the audience. While drafting a speech, the following points are to be observed.

1. Various facts relating to the subject matter of the speech are to be arranged in a logical order.
2. The material required for a speech should be obtained in a logical order.
3. The material selected must be stated clearly and accurately.
4. Express your ideas in proper sequence.
5. The language of speech should be simple and direct.
6. Avoid abstract reasoning. Use many illustrations, examples etc. So that the audience may be impressed.

3. Conclusion

This is the last part of the speech. Here the speaker gives concluding remarks and summarizes the entire speech given by him in few sentences. This is done to leave a clear message before the audience.

The final paragraph consists of only two or three sentences like the opening paragraph. It is normally drafted to repeat thanks for their invitation to speak, to thanks the audience for their interest, and to wish success and prosperity to the venture.

ADVANTAGES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING


Communication is a part and parcel of the management process. It is an important element of a manager’s job. It is the responsibility of every executive to develop and maintain a system of communication. In fact the number one management problem today is communication. Every manager spends the major portion of his time in communicating with his subordinates. Management is a series of communication process. Communication is the life blood of the organization and no organization can function without effective communication. Sound communication provides the following advantages:

1. Improves Managerial Performance

Communication enables a manager to diagnose the various problems and to secure information for decision making. A manager explains the meaning and significance of the organizational goals and policies to his subordinates through communication. In order to assign duties and responsibilities and to issue orders and instruction also a manager requires communication. Thus, communication enables a manager to plan logically to organize systematically, to direct effectively and to control effectively.

2. Facilitate Leadership

Communication enables a manager to understand the attitude, Flings and ideas of his subordinates. The modern concept of leadership exercised through persuation rather than command places a great premium in communication.

3. Increase job Satisfaction

Individuals get greater satisfaction from their jobs when they are told clearly how will they are doing and what they should do to improve performance. Through communication a manager can keep his subordinates informed of the result of their efforts. He can develop motivation in work by communicating effectively with them.

4. Help Public Relation

A business enterprise comes in contact with several social groups, e.g., customers, shareholders, government and the public. It must maintain harmonious relationship with this group. Communication enables the management to maintain contracts with this group and to develop a favorable image of the enterprise in the outside world. Public relation is mainly the job of effective communication with the external environment.
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Review Questions
  • 1. What is communication?
  • 2. Define principle of communication.
  • 3. What are the elements in the communication process?
  • 4. Who is the sender?
  • 5. What do you mean by encoding & decoding?
  • 6. What is the importance of feedback?
  • 7. What are the different channels of communication?
  • 8. Who is the receiver?
  • 9. What kind of information is usually conveyed in the message?
  • 10. What do you mean by gestural communication?
  • 11. What do you mean by oral communication and what are its advantages?
  • 12. What are the circumstances under which written communication is preferred over oral communication?
  • 13. What are the different types of business communication?
  • 14. What do you mean by business communication?
  • 15. What do you mean by informal communication?
  • 16. What do you mean by downward communication?
  • 17. What do you mean by oral communication?
  • 18. What do you mean by written communication?
  • 19. What do you mean by the term ‘feed-back’?
  • 20. What are the objective of feed-back? Explain.
  • 21. What are the different principles of feed-back? Explain.
  • 22. Why should feedback be specific?
  • 23. How does feed-back from an important prt in the communication cycle? explain.
  • 24. Draw a diagrammatic representation on feedback (response/reaction).
  • 25. Why should the feedback be timely and measurable? Explain.
  • 26. Is there a need to establish a dialogue in feedback, if yes, comment.
  • 27. Feedback is an important element of communication process. Explain.
  • 28. Write a note on Positive and Negative feedback.
  • 29. What do you mean by presentation skills?
  • 30. What are the benefits attained by organization thorugh presentation skills?
  • 31. How do you develop behaviour through presentation skills?
  • 32. What do you mean by communication aids?
  • 33. List out the objectives of communication aids.
  • 34. Define public speaking.
  • 35. What are types of public speaking?
  • 36. What are the advantages of public speaking?
  • 37. What are the special characteristics that a speaker should have?
  • 38. Explain the advantages of public speaking.
  • 39. What do you mean by corporate communication?
  • 40. Define corporate communication.
  • 41. State the objectives of corporate communication.
  • 42. Mention the functions of corporate communication.
  • 43. What are the uses of communication strategy?
  • 44. What are the functions of communication strategy?
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