MBA management

System Management and System Software topics:

SYSTEM MANAGEMENT


System management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distribution of distributed computer systems. Systems management is strongly influenced by network management initiatives in telecommunications. System management may involve one or more of the following tasks:
• Hardware inventories.
• Server availability monitoring and metrics.
• Software inventory and installation.
• Anti-virus and antimalware management.
• User’s activities monitoring.
• Capacity monitoring.
• Security management.
• Storage management.
• Network capacity and utilization monitoring.

SYSTEM SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE


Software maintenance is software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes, or to adapt the product to a modified environment.

This international standard describes the 6 software maintenance as:
1. The implementation processes contains software preparation and transition activities, such as the conception and creation of the maintenance plan, the preparation for handling problems identified during development, and the follow-up on product configuration management.

2. The problem and modification analysis process, which is executed once the application has become the responsibility of thee maintenance group. The maintenance programmer must analyze each request, confirm it ( by reproducing the situation) and check its validity, investigate it and propose a solution, document the request and the solution proposal, and finally, obtain all the required authorizations to apply the modifications.

3. The process considering the implementation of the modification itself.

4. The process acceptance of the modification, by checking it with the individual who submitted the request in order to make sure the modification provided a solution.

5. The migration process ( platform migration, for example) is exceptional, and is not part of daily maintenance tasks. If the software must be ported to another platform without any change in functionality, this process will be used and a maintenance project team is likely to be assigned to this task.

6. Finally, the last maintenance process, also an event which does not occur on a daily basis, is the retirement of a piece of software.

SOFTWARE LICENSE


A software license (or software license in commonwealth usage) is a legal instrument governing the usage or redistribution of copyright protected software. All software not in the public domain is copyright protected. A typical software license grants an end-user permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise constitute infringement of the software publisher’s exclusive rights under copyright law. In effect, the software license acts as a promise from the software publisher to not sue the end-user for engaging in activities that would normally be considered exclusive rights belonging to the software publisher.

In addition to granting rights and imposing restrictions on the use of software, software licenses typically contain provisions which allocate liability and responsibility between the parties entering into the license agreement. In enterprise and commercial software transactions these terms (such as limitations of liability, warranties and warranty disclaimers, and indemnity if the software infringes intellectual property rights of others) are often negotiated by attorneys specialized in software licensing. The legal field has seen the growth of this specialized practice area due to unique legal issues with software licenses, and the desire of software companies to protect assets which, if licensed improperly, could diminish their value.

PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE LICENSES


The hallmark of proprietary software licenses is that the software publisher grants a license to use on or more copies of software, but that ownership of those copies remains with the software publisher ( hence use of the term “proprietary”). One consequence of this feature of proprietary software licenses is that virtually all rights regarding the software are reserved by the software publisher. Only a very limited set of well-defined rights are conceded to the end-user. Therefore, it is typical of proprietary software license agreements to include many terms which specifically prohibit certain uses of thee software, often including uses which would otherwise be allowed under copyright law.

The most significant effect of this form of licensing is that, if ownership of the software remains with the software publisher, then the end-user must accept the software license. In other words, without acceptance of the license, the end-user may not use the software at all. One example of such a proprietary software licenses, this license contains an extensive list of activities which are restricted, such as ; reverse engineering, simultaneous use of the software by multiple users, and publication of benchmarks or performance tests.

Accordingly, proprietary software licenses attempt to give software publishers more control over the way their software is used by keeping ownership of each copy of software with the software publisher. By doing so, Section 117 does not apply to the end- user and the software publisher may then compel the end-user to accept all of the terms of the license agreement, many of which may be more restrictive than copyright law alone.

LICENSE FREE SOFTWARE


With a free software license, in contrast to proprietary software licenses, ownership of a particular copy of the software does not remain with the software publisher. Instead, ownership of the copy is transferred to the end-user. As a result, the end-user is, by default, afforded all rights granted by copyright law to the end-user. As a result, the end-user is, by default, afforded all rights granted by copyright law to the copy owner. Not that “copy owner” is not the same as “ copyright owner”. While ownership in a particular copy is transferred, ownership of the copyright remains with the software publisher. Additionally, a free software license typically grants to the end-user extra rights, which would otherwise be reserved by the software publisher.

With a free software license, in contrast to proprietary software licenses, a primary consequence of the free software from of licensing is that acceptance of the license is essentially optional- the end user may use the software without accepting the license. However, if the end-user wishes to exercise any of the additional rights granted by a free software license ( such as the right to redistribute the software) , then the end-user must accept, and be bound by, the software license.

Open source licenses generally fall under two categories: Those that aim to preserve the freedom and openness of the software itself ( ‘copyleft’ licenses), and those that aim to give freedom to the users of that software (permissive licenses). In the United States, Section 117 of the Copyright Act gives the owner of a particular copy of software the explicit right to use the software with a computer, even if use of the software with a computer requires the making of incidental copies or adaptations ( acts which could otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement). Therefore, the owner of a copy of computer software is legally entitled to use that copy of software. Here, if the end-user of software is the owner of the respective copy, then the end-user may legally use software without a license from the software publisher.

TRAINING


The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology ( also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade , occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize today the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.

Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: training and development. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job:

On- the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will us when fully trained. On- the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.

Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations - implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas.

SOFTWARE TRAINING


The Software Training, a part of the global IT Solutions Company Business Integration Software services and it is known for its pioneering work in the field of IT education and training. The strong research orientation has helped many continuously to innovate an the areas of instructional design methodologies, and curricula development that is cutting – edge.

Today, Information Technology is a tool to success for each and every sector, whether it’s an IT based company or non-IT Company. In any case, every sector is deploying some kind of Information Technology tools or solutions to make their business processes easy, transparent and accessible to everyone within the organization. At BIS Training Solutions, we deliver IT-Solutions along with Soft- Skills to Corporate at every level, according to their need for training.

The different types of software training are described as follows:

Entry- Level Training Programs: Corporate typically recruit fresh graduates/ post – graduates from both IT as well as non-IT backgrounds. However, the recruiting companies usually provide basic training to these people before they can be assigned on to their work-profiles. BIS Training Solutions plays a very important role here and steps in to serve the training requirement. The Software Training Offers induction –training programs that provide basic computer skills and an overview of the platforms that are unknown to the group.

Induction Training Programs: The recruiting companies usually provide additional training to professionals, having some formal exposure to common programming languages and other platforms, before they can be put on to live projects. The Software training solutions offers customized programs that train the participants on the languages that are unknown to them at the same time enhance the existing knowledge base.

High-end IT Training Programs: These are the purely customized high – end IT training programs, tailored according to the need of the Corporate. The programs designed are project specific encompassing new technologies and are driven towards skill up gradation.

Soft-skills: In the corporate – world, there is a common myth about software professionals that they are not well equipped with the corporate ethics and business etiquettes. On the other hand, in today’s competitive business- environment, soft-skills are the necessity of every successful employee. The Software Training Solutions, has come - up with unique training programs, having a blend of technical expertise with the soft-skills.

Custom Application Training Programs: Today, companies implement various software packages like SAP, ERP,CRM, KM and SCM or integration of software packages ( ex. CKM, i.e., KM with CRM) to various departmental functions. Sudden changes like this are always a surprise to their employees, who need training on these software packages. The Software Training Solutions Provide hands – on training to the employees on such software packages, enabling them to perform at their best.

The Software Training Provides a comprehensive education environment to individuals and enterprises, offering training that is customized to the varied needs of audiences with diverse backgrounds. The Software Training offers full proof solutions to all needs pertaining to content development. It offers effective and innovative Learning Solutions to deliver a superior learning experience. The Software Training Learning Services develops customized content for all training requirements. With the BIS team of Subject Matter Experts, Project Managers, Instructional Designers, Integration Experts, Technical and Content Writers, Flash Developers & Multimedia Managers, one can be assured of the most effective content. The content developed is based on through research of thee industry and the needs of the clients. The existing knowledge base is taken into account and perfect delivery modules are prepared, that ensure successful knowledge transfer and skill enhancement.

The success of The Software Training learning services can be credited to the flexibility and client consultation process as well as to enriched experience of more than 20 years in the business of educational content creation and delivery.

Corrective Maintenance: Reactive modification of a software product performed after delivery to correct discovered problems.

Adaptive Maintenance: Modification of a software product performed after delivery to keep a software product usable in a changed or changing environment.

Perfective maintenance: Modification of a software product after delivery to improve performance or maintainability.

Preventive maintenance: Modification of a software product after delivery to detect and correct latent faults in the software product before they become effective faults.

Overview

This international standard describes the 6 software maintenance processes as:

1. The implementation processes contains software preparation and transition activities, such as the conception and creation of the maintenance plan, thee preparation for handling problems identified during development, and the follow-up on product configuration management.

2. The problem and modification analysis process, which is executed once the application has become the responsibility of the maintenance group. The maintenance programmer must analyze each request, confirm it( by reproducing the situation) and check its validity, investigate it and propose a solution, document the request and the solution proposal, and finally obtain all the required authorizations to apply the modifications.

3. The process considering the implementation of the modification itself.

4. The process acceptance of the modification, by checking it with the individual who submitted the request in order to make sure the modification itself.

5. The migration process ( platform migration, for example) is exceptional, and is not part of daily maintenance tasks. If the software must be ported to another platform without any change in functionality, this process will be used and a maintenance project team is likely to be assigned to this task.

6. Finally, the last maintenance process, also an event which does not occur on a daily basis, is the retirement of a piece of software.

There are a number of processes, activities and practices that are unique to maintainers, for example:
Transition : a controlled and coordinated sequence of activities during which a system is transferred progressively from the developer to the maintainer;

Service Level agreements (SLAs) and specialized (domain- specific) maintenance contracts negotiated by maintainers;

Modification Request and Problem Report Help Desk: a problem- handling process used by maintainers to prioritize, document and route thee requests they receive:

Modification Request acceptance? Rejection : modification request work over a certain size/ effort/ complexity may be rejected by maintainers and rerouted to a developer.

A common perception of maintenance is that it is merely fixing bugs. However, studies and surveys over the years have indicated that the majority, over 80% of the maintenance effort is used for non-corrective actions (Pigosky 1997).This perception is perpetuated by users submitting problem reports that in reality are functionality enhancements to the system.

Software maintenance and evolution of systems were first addressed by Meir Lehman in 1969. Over a period of twenty years, his research led to the formulation of eight Laws of Evolution ( Lehman 1997). Key findings of his research include that maintenance is really evolutionary development and that maintenance decisions are aided by understanding what happens to systems ( and software) over time. Lehman demonstrated that systems continue to evolve over time. As they evolve, they grow more complex unless some action such as code refactoring is taken to reduce the complexity.

The key software maintenance issues are both managerial and technical. Key management issues are: alignment with customer priorities, staffing, which customer priorities, staffing , which organization does maintenance, estimating costs. Key technical issues are: limited understanding, impact analysis, testing, and maintainability measurement.

SYSTEM SUPPORT


System Support is a specific class of computerized information systems that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. A properly- designed System Support is an interactive software based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions.

Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present would be:

- An inventory of all of your current information assets ( including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts),

- Comparative sales figures between one week and the next,

- Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions.

Development Frameworks

System Support is not entirely different from other systems and requires a structured approach. Such a framework includes people, technology, and the development approach.

System Support technology levels (of hardware and software) may include:

1. The actual application that will be used by the user. This is the part of the application that allows the decision maker to make decisions in a particular problem area. The user can act upon that particular problem.

2. Generator contains Hardware environment that allows people to easily develop specific DSS applications. This level makes us of case tools or systems such as Crystal, AIMMS, and I Think.

3. Tools include lower level hardware software. DSS generators including special languages, function libraries and linking modules an iterative developmental approach allows for the DSS to be changed and redesigned at various intervals. Once the system is designed, it will need to be tested and revised for the desired outcome.

Benefits of System Support

1. Improves personal efficiency
2. Expedites problem solving (speed up the progress of problems solving in an organization)
3. Facilitates interpersonal communication
4. Promotes learning or training
5. Increases organizational control
6. Generates new evidence in support of a decision
7. Creates a competitive advantage over competition
8. Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker
9. Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space
10. Helps automate the managerial processes

SYSTEM ORGANISATION


Deming first called attention to the importance of linking a system for production with a system for improvement and trying them to a common aim for the future. He referred to this as “viewing production as a system.” Dr. Thomas Nolan, of associates in process Improvements, Silver Spring, MD and dr. Paul Batalden of the Center for the Evaluate Clinical Sciences, Dartmouth Medical School, are responsible for creating this document based on the work of Dr. Deming. This exercise has helped many leaders view their organization as a system. This document is used with permission.

All the tools and methods of quality improvement revolve around a basic understanding of “production as a system”. Whether the organization produces cars, bank deposits, surgery or education, the principles are the same. Therefore, it is important to read through this section in its entirety being mindful that this will later be part of your project.

Demanding defined a system as a group of interdependent people, items, processes, products, and services that have a common purpose or aim.

To understand an organization as a system of production we must consider:

• How we make what we make.
• Why we make what we make.
• How we improve what we make.

PROCESS OF DESIGNING SYSTEM ORGANISATION


The question we seek to answer here is: What methods or activities do you use to make your service or product?

• Arrange the processes in a typical scenario that illustrates what usually happens. This may be the steps of how a patient comes and moves through the major steps in the hospital, or it can be the production of a car.

• Some processes come together to form the “core” process- or mainstay- of what you do . Other processes support that core process. Both are important. Supportive processes find their way into many steps of the core process.

• Arrange the steps in the core process in such a way that it is clear that the supportive processes help the core process. If displaying the post-It notes on a piece of butcher paper, consider turning the sheet on its long side and starting the first step in the core process in the upper left hand corner of thee sheet, then list the steps in sequence across the top of the sheet. The supportive process can be clustered on the bottom one-half of the sheets.

The answers to these questions reveal that there are several processes at work to generate what you produce. Some of them are linked to each other. Some of these linked processes from a “core” that represents the basic work of the organization as it constitutes the “mainstay” of what is regularly produced. Further, it will be clear that some other processes are linked in a supportive way to that “main” or “core” process.

Vision of System Organization

The question we seek to answer is: Based on what you know about the need for what you do, and your knowledge of the customers, what is the vision for the future in your organization?

• Your “vision” for what you seek to become should be clearly related to the understanding need in the community and society for what you do, as well as to your knowledge of the customers.

• Placing those social/ community needs and customer knowledge items ( the “prompts” behind the way in which people define quality) side by side on a single sheet of paper sometimes allows you to begin thinking about what it might take to become an organization in the future that better meets those needs.

• Note that your knowledge of the processes of what do you helps inform your understanding of what those processes are able to produce ( process capability) in relation to the needs and to the knowledge of the customer.

• Is the “vision” shared? What is shared is likely to actually inform ongoing efforts.

• Be as specific as you can. If the “picture” of the future is clear- like a photograph- it is easier for people to know what is meant and, therefore , it is more likely to be realized.

• Remember that your ability to clearly state this aim will improve as you keep working on it.

• Sometimes it is helpful to ask this question for five years from now. “ What do we need to become in five years that we are not now, based on our knowledge of needs and our knowledge of the customer.?”

• Some have found it helpful to realize that a vision of the future should permit your organization to be recognized as “ respective “ and as “discernible” by those you intend to serve.

The ingredients of your shared view of the future for your organization underline what will be needed to build a shared sense of that future. The shared sense of the future is what every worker needs in order to align with what they do and they do and how they might improve what they do with the future of the organization.

Design and Redesign

The final question we need to answer is: What specific process(es) will offer you the greatest leverage in securing the strategic improvements you seek to make?

• Be as specific as you can.

• Limit the number of processes to 3-8.

• In keeping with your strategic priorities for improvement, you may identify some processes that simply need to be stabilized so that they are more predictable.

The answers to this question offer greater precision for the immediate improvement plans and recognize that improvement will occur either by designing some new processes or by re-designing existing processes.
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  • 1. What is system management? What is software maintenance?
  • 2. What is a software license? Discuss the rights of licensor and the license.
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