MBA management

Training and Development System Topics:

Meaning and Definition of Training & Development System


With the developmental emphasis accepted by the organization, it becomes imperative that organizations establish training system. There needs to be a systematic approach to manage training which has to answer a few basic queries like:

1) Will the training be done internally or externally? Does the organization have or intend to develop an in-house training centre?

2) How much and what kind of training will be done externally and is this also an essential part?

3) Who are the functionaries responsible for administering the training system?

It is a fact that a majority of the organizations today have some kind of in-house establishment which primarily caters to the operational knowledge and skill requirements specific to the organization. This implies that the need for certain advanced, specialized training is met sending people to other (external) institutions which offer training programmes. The most common among these are specialized institutes which impart training in management, finance, behavioral skills.

Whether the actual training is done internally or externally, organizations have to follow certain logical processes for enhancing knowledge, skills, and attitudes of their personnel. These are:

1) Identification of Training Needs,

2) Preparation of a training Plan,

3) Conducting Training Programme,

4) Managing training Programme,

5) Evaluation of the Training Programmes and the plan, and

6) Selection and Development of Trainers.

Preparation of a Training Plan


The training need identification process provides the basic data for preparing the Annual Training plan. The primary focus at this stage is to prioritize the various issues thrown up by the data and seek an appropriate balance between the various trends. The training plan is expected to specify.

1) Number of training programmes to be conducted- Internal, external.

2) Level of employees- what will be the coverage of employees through the plan?

3) What will be the subject areas that will be highlighted and what will be left out of the plan for future?

4) What will be allocation of resources - what are the contingencies worked out?

5) What arrangements are made to accommodate something that emerges beyond the plan?

Organization employs a framework to facilitate the process of deciding priorities. Organizational policy and priorities is a vital factor. Without a favorable and committed policy for training and development the entire exercise of collecting data, analyzing and prioritizing it, will be waste of efforts.

Training plan should give answer to the following :

Who?   1) How many people.
2) Names.
3) Series and grades.
4) Organizational sections.
5) Geographical locations.
     
When?   1) Training schedule.
2) Dates of training.
3) Length of training.
4) When skills needed or required.
5) Workload demands affecting trainee availability.
     
Where?   1) Training source.
2) Internal.
3) External.
4) Combination of resources.
5) Geographical location of training.
     
How Much?   1) Course tuition.
2) Travel and per diem.
3) Time lost from the job.
4) Other costs.


Another related aspect is to decide whether training can be given on the job or in a formal classroom set-up. There are situations where certain knowledge or skill based training can be given on the job. Apprenticeship programmes, Job instruction training, Understudy assignment (Mentor-prototype relationship), Programmed instruments (self-learning), job rotation are the commonly used on-the-job training methods. As may be observed, very often organizations use this channel to train employees the routine, procedural, operational aspects. It does have an advantage to the extent that the individuals is actually contributing to the events In the organization and secondly, the individual does see the relevance and gets the ‘feel of things’ of what is to be done. This has its own significance in the initial period of joining the organization. An individual is likely to be motivated as he is on the scene of the work and not in the classroom. Therefore, very often this forms the part of the induction training.

Conducting Training Programme


To conduct a training programme is not an easy task. The following steps are essential for conducting a training programme in an organization:

1) Preparation of the Learner : The trainees should ensure that the trainees do not become nervous during the training period .The trainees should be educated about the importance of training and its relationship with the equipment, machinery, tools and other items with which he/she has to work. In sum, the trainees should be explained ‘why’ of each job and especially the job he is going to perform. The trainer should inculcate interest in the trainees to learn perfectly so that they perform effectively on their jobs.

2) Identification of Training Needs : Identification of training needs require organizational analysis, operational analysis, and man analysis. Organizational analysis is concerned with the determination of enterprise goals, allocation of resources, and establishing the framework within which training programme is to be carried out. Operations analysis is concerned with the job an employee is doing or is supposed to do. Man analysis deals with the review if knowledge, attitudes, and skills of the incumbent and decide the alterations in the job effectively. While discovering the training needs the following tasks are to be performed:

i) List the duties and responsibilities or tasks of the job under consideration (Job Description can be used here).

ii) List the standards of work performance on the job.

iii) Compare the actual performance against the standards.

iv) Determine the areas of the areas of the job where employees are struggling to perform effectively.

v) Determine what kind of training is to be given to the employee to overcome difficulties in performing the given task or job.

3) Who is to be Trained? The second important step in developing an effective training programme is to decide the employees who are to be trained. These include the supervisory staff, the newcomer, old employee, or all of these.

4) Imparting Knowledge : Disseminating information and imparting the methods of performing jobs is the core of training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, shows explain, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations concerning the job. The trainee should be told the sequence of performing a given task, and why each step in the performance of the job is necessary. The trainer should give the instruction to trains clearly, unambiguously, and completely. The trainer should ask questions to check whether the trainee understands what he taught and encourage the trainee understands what he taught and encourage the trainee to clear doubts, if any.

5) Performance Try-Out : To know the effectiveness of training all the trainees are tested. Testing is done by:

i) Conducting oral or written tests to the trainees to ascertain how far they have learnt the principles and techniques of performing the job.

ii) Conducting structured interviews about the job.

iii) Asking the trainees to do the job to ascertain their performance.

iv) Studying the profiles and charts of carrier development of the participating trainees and related assignment techniques.

v) Eliciting the opinion of the top management about the trainees’ job performance.

6) Follow–up : A final step in the training programme is the follow-up. In the connection it is necessary to remember that “if the learner has not learnt, the teacher has not taught.” The trainees should be informed about their performance so that they can improve upon it in future. Providing feedback encourages the trainees to perform better because they will be able to identify the crucial areas where they are lacking; to know their weak sports and their strong points in performing the given task. After knowing the limitations it becomes very easy for the trainees to remove them and become successful on their jobs.

Managing Training Programme


1) Lacking the dates : Training implementation function begins with blocking appropriate dates once the design is ready. There are so many stakeholders involved in a training activity like the trainees, the trainers, the organization or sponsor, the service providers and even the customers who depend upon the services of the trainees. The other factors that influence the training dates are climatic conditions and seasonal character of industry for on the job training. When to block Dates: Dates have to be blocked for any training programme at least 90-120 days in advance, particularly if the programme is heavily dependent upon outside resources, right from venue to the resource persons. Training managers should consult the major stakeholders like the organization, the trainers, the trainees (or their supervisors), the service providers like audio visual equipment’s and hotel managers to ascertain the convenient dates. From the trainee perspective, the training should not be held during periods wherein lots of intervening holidays are going to come.

Trainers/ resource persons would be happy to participate if the programme is conducted on the days they are not engaged elsewhere. If trainers’ date and your date don’t match with each other no doubt the trainer will loose an assignment, but you as an organizer will also face serious problems if the said trainer happens to be person of exceptional skills/expertise, which cannot be found easily in many other trainers.

2) Mobilizing the Resources/ Financial Resources : Training resources of course, does involve financial resources but goes beyond by touching the human resources, material resources but goes beyond by touching the human resources. Material resources and infrastructure resources. The reason why a training manager has to focus seriously on resource mobilization is because money alone cannot obtain all the other training resources. For example, you may be willing to pay any amount for the right trainer but still not be able to locate him. Therefore, searching and bringing the needed resources for your programme is very important for its overall success.

3) Analyzing course material and learner information : is the first training delivery competency identified by the international board of standards for training, performance and instruction (IBSTPI) standards. By using this competency, you can ensure that an appropriate match exists between the training you deliver and the people who attend the training. You should usually demonstrate it before you deliver training. However, depending on the situation and time constraints, you may have to demonstrate this competency during training delivery.

4) Logical Arrangements : Logistics refer to the movement of people, materials, and equipment. Logical arrangements involve preparing the training site and ensuring that people are notified about it, that equipment is in place when and where it is needed, that food, other refreshments arrive as ordered, and that handout and other materials arrive on schedule. You must make all logistical arrangements well in advance, and then double- check them to ensure that everything runs smoothly.

Scheduling or other logistical problem may appear to pose minor inconveniences. But the impact on the effectiveness of the training and on the trainer’s credibility can be tremendous- especially when scheduling is tight and learners are difficult to assemble.

5) Arranging the physical Equipment : An important implementation decision concerns arranging the physical environment. Following things should be kept in mind.

• Distractions like noise and phone calls and other physical barriers should be avoided.

• In classroom training, proper seating arrangement should be done, comfortable seats should be provided.

• Training rooms should be well ventilated as extremes in room temperature can inhibit learning.

• Proper lighting, computers and other equipment’s required for the training should be in good working condition and should be tested before the training starts.

• Interruptions can be avoided by setting aside certain times of the day or a special location for training that is free from distractions.

• Additional physical factors a trainer may want to consider include wall and floor coverings and colors (carpeted rooms are quieter), the type of chairs, the presence of glare, windows (a view may distract participants), acoustics, and the presence of electrical outlets to run necessary equipment.

6) Managing the Learning Environment : Managing the learning environment is a major training delivery competency. It is also the second competency that is typically exhibited during training delivery. Date Carnegie states that the key to all persuasive speaking is the ability to grab the attention and interest of the audience from the outset.

i) Attention Getters: You can use six techniques to hold audience attention at the opening of your session:

a) Providing examples,
b) Posing questions,
C) Stimulating curiosity,
d) Conveying benefits,
e) Using facts and statistics,
f) Incorporating props.

ii) Icebreakers: Are activities used to “break the ice” at the opening of a training programme. They are important for the simple reason that participants cannot work with you or with each other effectively in a training session if they remain strangers. Icebreakers are useful in building effective interaction and esprit de corps among participants.

7) Managing Time : The ability to manage time is an important skill. Most of the training programmes have limited time available and must be well- managed so that all learning objectives are met. If designed properly; training should follow a schedule that is usually provided in the instructor or participant guide. This schedule lists activities and provides estimates of how long they should take.

8) Executing, the Programme : The excellence in execution occurs if all the above planned activities come live in action on all the training days. In other words, the confirmed trainees and trainers should turn up for the programme, the training hall and laboratory facilities should be available , the service providers should render the services on time without diluting th quality and the desired learning should occur as per the plan.

The training manager should once again remind all the concerned participants just a day prior to the commencement of training.He should rach the venue at least one hour in advance to the venue on the first daymorning to ensure that everything is happening as planned. Defaulters can be reminded again on the first day morning to join the programme. In spire of the plans and precautions it is common for a couple of lapses to occur, which should be taken care of by the contingency plan. At the end of each day the manager should take stock of the situation and remind the concerned parties for the next day events.

Purchases and photocopies: There may be involved small purchases and photocopying activities during the programme. The purchases could be stationery items and folders for the trainees as also for the trainers; bouquets and mementos for the trainers and any other necessary items that may be needed for the training. The printing or photocopying activities are needed for reference material to trainees, activity sheets during the session, evaluation sheets at the end and so on. If photocopying is not available at the centre, then a nearby centre should be identified in advance for the purpose.

Time Management: there is no dearth of trainers who can prolong the sessions to three hours against the allotted time of one hour. Prolonging one session can adversely affect all other sessions. Therefore the training manager as a coordinator of the programme should ensure that sessions are not prolonged beyond the allotted time. Never hesitate to inform the trainer in advance about the constraints of time. If any trainer continues the session beyond the allotted time, then it is also necessary to intervene by showing a red flag to him or by sending message on a piece of paper requesting him to stop.

Catering Arrangements: Make sure that proper catering arrangements are made. Proper arrangements means that lunch and tea are served as per the appointed time, they are delicious, fresh and hygienic, accommodations are made for the special needs of disadvantaged trainees, like those who want sugarless tea, dry bread or vegetarian dishes. Catering arrangements are very important and any negligence in this regard would upset the whole programme. Understand the sensitivities of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. For example, in India, non-vegetarians would not mind taking vegetarian food but vegetarians would not mind taking vegetarian food but vegetarians will not take non-vegetarian food.

9) Concluding, the Programme : Conclude the programme on a happy note. Obtain the feedback from the trainees about the programme and answer if the trainees any clarifications.

10) Post-Programme Activates : If any learning needs have not been met during the programme, make sure the information/material is sent immediately after the programme, through e-mail or courier. Settle the bills of service providers on the last day of the programme or on the next day. If any post-training activities have to be performed by the trainees, like submitting an assignment or completing a reading assignment, remind them of the same. Sometimes, instructions may have to be sent to the trainee’s supervisor at workplace to provide any assistance needed or cooperate in the enhancement of trainee’s learning, or to observe the post-training performance and submit a report on the improvements. In case of paid prgrammes, a couple of trainees may not have paid the course fees yet. Follow-up with such trainees may not have paid the course fees yet. Follow-up with such trainees or with their employers to pay the outstanding amount if, you have drawn advance amount from your finance department, please arrange to submit the bills and square off the entries in the books of accounts.

Training Methods


When a person is working in a garden, some tools are more helpful in performing certain tasks than others. The same logic applies when considering various T&D methods. In some cases, place it is not feasible to learn while at the same time performing jobs. Although an increasing amount of training takes place on the job at the time the employee needs the training, many T&D programs occur away from the work setting. Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the job, training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities at the actual workplace; off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than real work spot.

FUNCTIONS OF TRAINING METHODS


1) Assist in creating an Appropriate Learning Environment: The training methods facilitates learning in a relatively risk-free and non-threatening manner. It aims to reduce learning fatigue by making learning an interesting, meaningful and even enjoyable experience. Use of an appropriate training method stimulates the participants and sustains their interest in the training activity. It arouses their curiosity. Thus, it helps in creating and sustaining an appropriate learning environment for a particular module or topic.

2) Enhance participation and Involvement of the Group: A training method aims to enhance the process of learning by emerging and motivating the participants for greater contribution and involvement in the training process. This promotes two-way communication between the participants and the trainers. It keeps them in a state of action and agility. It is directed at bringing out the best in them. It also facilitates a meaningful and productive investment of their knowledge and experience in the learning process.

3) Give Greater Control of the Learning process to the participants: Modern learning theory emphasizes the desirability of giving learners a certain degree of ownership and control of the learning processes. Ownership of the programme raises the stakes of the participants, strengthening their commitment to the programme and its success.

4) Promote Group Interaction and Cohesion: Increased participation and involvement in training activities promotes interaction among the participants. Free and open sharing of experiences and ideas can assist in the development and nurturing of healthy and positive relationships within the group. Support mechanisms are strengthened and this leads to better cohesion in the group.

TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS


A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. The most commonly used methods are:

1) On-the-Job Methods
2) Off-the-Job Methods

On-the-job Methods


On–the-job–methods of management development are very popular and are used widely by majority organizations. These methods are popular among trainees also. They are more effective and not boring as in case of classroom method. These methods are most suited to technical personnel’s and scientists. These are low cost methods. The following is the brief resume of on-the-job methods of executive development.

Training Methods

On-the-job method   Off-the-job method
- Coaching
- Job Rotation
- Understudy
- Multiple Management
- Apprenticeship
- Job Instruction Training (JIT)
  - Transactional Analysis
- Sensitivity Training
- Case Study
- Simulation Exercises
- Management Games
- Managerial Grid
- Role Playing
- Computer-aided Instruction
- Incident Method
- In Basket Method
- Conference
- Lectures
- Programmes by Academic Institution
- Audio-Visual Method
- Programmed Instruction
- Vestibule Training
- Brainstorming
- Field Trip
- Demonstration
- Questioning
     


1) Coaching : Coaching is an activity of guiding a manager by a senior one, A senior manager must play an active role in guiding and teaching skills. He tells him how to do a job and corrects the errors. A senior manager is referred to as a coach. So coach makes an analysis of trainee’s work performance and tries to improve it with suitable guidance. He renders advice, criticizes, makes necessary suggestions and gives directions to the trainee executive for his growth and development. This is a method of learning by doing. A feedback is also taken by the coach. The coach must be a good teacher. The coach may divert the trainee executive from routine work and assign him to handle some complex problem and observe his performance.

This technique suffers from limitations that there is heavy dependence on the coach and there developed a tendency to make present executive styles as central. This will not give way to new and developed managerial styles and practices in the organization. The trainee executive acquires the skills and knowledge to perform a job and also acquire the teaching or coaching ability.

Merits of Coaching

i) To the Organization: Organization benefits from several ways like reduced errors, improved quality, reduced wastage, better customer service and more cost savings.

ii) To the Employee: Employee benefits from coaching through reduced work stress, improved performance, brighter career prospects, enhanced pay, more job satisfaction and larger possibility of job retention.

iii) To the Supervisor: Supervisor can get the things done through subordinates easily. Can reach his targets in qualitative and quantitative terms and the resultant career and compensation prospects.

iv) To the society: Society benefits as the coaching process creates a wealth of learned manpower. Coaching builds a society of capable people.

v) Feel of Actual Production Conditions: The trainee learns on the actual equipment in use and in the real environment of his job. Therefore, he gets a feel of the actual production conditions and requirements and so is better prepared to take on the duties as soon as the training is over.

vi) Economical: It is highly economical, as no additional personnel or facilities are required for training.

vii) Less Time Required: It is most appropriate for teaching the knowledge and skills which can be acquired in a relatively short period, say, in few days or weeks.

Demerits of Coaching

i) Disorganized: Instruction could be highly disorganized and haphazard and not properly supervised, as there is no formal, tried and tested training programme with specified course structure. The evaluation will be only in the form of output of the employee. The outcome depends on the trainers’ capability to explain the job content and motivate the employee to perform. If the trainer is unable to impart the skills to the trainee effectively, it can ruin the career of thee employee.

ii) Distractions: Learners are often subjected to low distractions of a noisy shop or office.

iii) Low Productivity: There is the disadvantage of low productivity, particularly in the initial period after the training, when the employee is unable to fully develop his skills. This can be construed by the management as a failure on the part of the employee. The employee suffers and the organization also suffers a setback, as a new recruit will have to b selected and put through the same routine of training. The time lost in this process can disturb the production schedules.

2) Job Rotation : The job rotation is a very good method of transforming a functional specialist into a generalist executive. The job rotation refers to transfer of managers from one job to another or from one department to another or from one section to another in a planned manner. The transferred executive to new job has to assume the full responsibility and duty. The object is to broaden the outlook and acquire the diverse skills and knowledge needed to perform the various jobs in the organization. The manager will learn new ideas and gain new information underlying various jobs. It will motivate him and help him acquire comprehensive knowledge and skills. He will understand others difficulties and realize the circumstances under which his colleagues are working. It will free him from the monotony of working in the same position. Job rotation may be horizontal or vertical. The horizontal job rotation is a lateral transfer while vertical is a promotion. Many organizations in India use job rotation technique to impart multiple skills to their executives. The job rotation imparts multiple skills and broadens the outlook of trainee executive. It increases the knowledge and skills of performing various jobs in the organization and aids executive to gain in experience.

This technique is not cost effective. On the new assignment the manager may commit mistakes which add to costs.

Merits of job rotation:

i) Increases Experience : It broadens employees and increases their experience. Boredom and monotony, which develop after a person has acquired the skills necessary to perform a task effectively, are reduced when transfers are made frequently.

ii) Managing of functional fields : Executives will tend to think in terms of managerial principles rather than the technical aspects of particular functional fields. That rotating will permit good executives to determine the functional fields in which they would prefer to manage.

iii) Broad View of Problems : By gaining a broad view of interdivisional problems, the top position in the company can be filled by better qualified appointees. However, there is occasional hesitation to adopt job rotation because it runs counter to two basic feature of an organization:

a) Specialization and the expertise it fosters, and
b) Cost.

iv) Variety : The Employ experiences variety of work, workplace and peer group.

v) Broaden Knowledge and Skills : Job rotation helps to broaden the knowledge and skills of an employee.

vi) Broadens Work Experience : Job rotation broadens the work experience of employees and turns specialists into generalists.

vii) Beneficial for Management : It is beneficial for the management also as the management gets employees who can perform a variety of tasks to meet the contingencies.

viii) Improves Self Image : This method improves the self-image and personal worth of the employee.

ix) Flexibility : With the help of this method, people become more flexible. They are prepared to assume greater responsibility especially at other positions.

Demerits of Job Rotation

• Increased Costs : Development costs are increased and productivity is reduced by moving a worker into a new position just when his efficiency, at the prior job was creating organizational economies.

• Limited Job Knowledge : An extensive rotation programme can result in having a vast number of employees situated in a position where their job knowledge is very limited. And even though there job knowledge is very limited. And even though there might be significant long-term benefits from the programme, the organization must be equipped to deal with the day-to-day problems that result when inexperienced personnel perform new tasks and when rotated managers make decisions based on little knowledge of the activity at hand.

• Demotivate Intelligent trainees : Lastly, job rotation can also demonstrate intelligent trainees who seek specific and clear-cut responsibility in their chosen specialty.

• Frustration : The employees who want to perform challenging jobs feel frustrated. Even though they are shifted to new positions but it is only a horizontal shifting. Instead of performing one monotonous job, they are made to perform several jobs of the same nature.

• Interruptions in Work Routine : Frequent shifting of employees may cause intrruptions in the work routine of the organization.

• Limited Impact on Employee Motivation : The method has very limited impact on employee motivation and productivity.

3) Understudy : It is a development technique to prepare a manager for taking over the charge of his senior after his retirement, transfer, promotion or death. This technique provides an equally competent successor to a senior managr who is currently holding the post. The executive who is understudy acts as assistant to the superior executive whom he will succeed. The senior executive teaches him all the skills and imparts complete knowledge for the performance of the job and gives him a feel of what his job is. The understudy is developed in all respects such as decision making, leading, problem solving, etc. The senior managers realize that unless they develop their subordinates, they would not get promotion. Under these circumstances they prepare their subordinates for taking over their charge. The understudy is given an opportunity to see the job into in absence of senior manager who is on leave. Only a cure is taken by the understudy that the decision making in critical matter is delayed and is left to the manager currently holding the post.

Merits of Understudy

i) Continuity of Managerial Talent : The understudy method ensures continuity of managerial talent even when the superior leaves the organization.

ii) Leadership Qualities : The leadership qualities of trainee would be developed because he may be asked to supervise and guide a number of subordinates at work.

iii) Higher Responsibilities : Best method for subordinates to assume higher responsibilities in future.

iv) Cheap Method : This is a cheap method.

Demerits of Understudy

i) Selection of Wrong person : If a wrong person is selected then it will lead to errors.

ii) Favouritism : The understudy may be picked by the superiors and in this process he may exhibit favouritism.

4) Multiple Management : multiple management is also known as committee management, under this technique a committee consisting of some managers is formed and given an assignment to study the company problems and to make advice or give recommendations to the top management. These committee are usually formed with the junior executives. They study the problem are find out alternate solutions, discuss them and arrive at a final decision. The appointment of managers to the committees facilitates their exposure to the organization and widens their outlook and provides them with an excellent opportunity to develop themselves by acquiring knowledge of different aspects relating to business and industry and to interact with the group.

5) Apprenticeship : Apprenticeship is a formal agreement between an individual who wants to learn a skill and an employer who needs a skilled worker. Apprenticeship training is an “earning while learning” arrangement for a required term. Training occurs under the supervision of an experienced person; an apprentice receives knowledge and develops skills associated with a designated trade through on-the –job training. The skills an apprentice learns on-the-job are supplanted with a required number of weeks each year of technical training. Upon successfully completing an apprenticeship programme, the trainee is eligible for applying permanent job in an organization subject to availability of vacancy. Apprenticeships are highly valued by people needing to gain skills to enter a new occupation. Apprentices benefit from having guaranteed employment while undertaking training and from having the opportunity to learn skills from experienced, skilled and qualified persons in their chosen occupation. Apprenticeships are also popular with those employers who are involved in the system. Employers have the benefit of an employee who can be trained in the particular skills their enterprise requires, who becomes more and more productive as time passes and who can be paid at a lower rate than a fully qualified worker during the contract-of-training period.

MERITS OF APPRENTICESHIP

i) Learn while Earn Money : It offers the opportunity for participants to learn while they earn money according to a progressive pay scale that automatically increases as their skills increase.

ii) Blending of theory : It provides a blending of theory with practical learning. It is a prime example of the “learning by doing” approach to education.

iii) Motivate Individuals : Learning while on the job can motivate individuals who may not do well in the traditional classroom setting.

iv) Practical Skills : Apprentices will earn while they learn and will gain practical and transferable skills while keeping their options open.

v) Interaction : Training and jobs are brought closer together.

vi) Update Techniques : It helps to assure that up-to-date equipment and techniques are used in training.

vii) Holistic training : By design, apprentices train for an entire industry, rather than for an individual employer.

vii) Life long Learning : It offers a foundation for lifelong learning.

Demerits of Apprenticeship

i) Limited Knowledge : Education will be limited to knowledge of one trade.

ii) Difficult : Not all apprenticeships are easy.

6) Job Instruction Training ( JIT) : It consists of a formal systematic programme for conducting training in the workplace; practicum and internships. It is the responsibility of supervisors and managers to utilize available resources to train, quality and develop their employees.

JIT is a technique of training the employees by using the actual work site as a proper setting to instruct employees while at the same time engaging in productive work. JIT is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized and conducted at the employee’s worksite. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee’s job especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally- owned equipment’s and facilities. Morale, productivity and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ a sound JIT programme.

Merits of JIT

• You can follow classroom, web-based and off-site instruction with JIT to ensure job competency.

• For many kinds of jobs, structured JIT has been proven to be the most effective, efficient method of learning job skills to increase productivity and quality.

• JIT ensures that performance assessment can be done at Kirkpatrick’s level 3, job performance.

• JIT is Just-in-Time (classroom training is often just-in-case).

• Learning is immediately relevant to the work of the unit, whether it deals with materials, information or services.

• JIT reinforces work relationships, especially when the supervisors are involved.

• Informal peer training _ the “hidden JIT” that teaches unsafe and ineffective practices, is reduced or eliminated.

• Trained JIT trainers reduce wrong learning and ensure that employees learn the most expert methods.

• Instructors use training plans to determine the most productive use of time- that means what skills needed the most to improve efficiency of the unit.

• Instructors use job aids to ensure learning is most efficient and job performance is most effective.

Demerits of JIT

i) One major drawback of on the job training can be finding the right time for it. The person responsible for giving and evaluating the training has to be sure that his or her other job responsibilities are being met.

ii) Another disadvantage of JIT is that it can be difficult to find the right person to conduct it. The person doing the training must have the knowledge and skills with the same equipment that the learner will be working with. Care must also be given not to pass on sloppy work habits or unintentionally teach irrelevant or inefficient work methods to the new worker/learner.

Off-the-Job Methods


On–the-job development techniques are insufficient for the total development of executives of any organization. This gap can be bridged by adopting off-the-job development techniques. The important off-the –job development methods are the following:

1) Transactional Analysis : The Transactional Analysis (TA) is an attempt to understand and analyze trainee’s personality through the communicative interaction. The interaction between individual human being is viewed as transactions, for instance, “I will do this for you and you do that for me.” TA holds the view that the human personality is constituted by three ego states, i.e., parent, child and adult. All these three ego states are reflected in his personality when he communicates with others. Parent state is reflected when he behaves and interacts like a parent and others “do’s and “don’ts” e.g., Do this, don’t delegate authority to him, etc. Parent state reflects dominance. An individual reflects a child state when his interaction is characterized by an impulse that is natural. An individual reflects his adult mode or state when his interactions are rational. The transactional analysis aims at liberating the adult from the parent and child state. The adult state is rational and deals with reality. It collects information and see reasons and takes decisions. Adult behavior and interactions are expected from executives and managers who are decision-makers. Transactional analysis is an important psychiatric technique for executive development of recent origin used by many organizations.

2) Sensitivity Training : This is the technique of bringing about a change in behavior of the executives through group process.

According to Edwin B. Flippo, the objective of this technique is the “development of awareness of and sensitivity to behavioral patterns of one self and others”. This technique is also referred to as laboratory training. The trainee executives participate and influence each other through unstructured group interaction. The participants here are provided open environment where they discuss freely among themselves. The environment is created by a professional behaviorist. They openly express their ideas, concepts, attitudes and get opportunity to know about themselves and the impact of their behavior on their fellow participants. This technique helps in creating mutual trust and respect. It thus develops managerial sensitivity. It develops team sprit. This technique is regularly used by some of the Indian companies.

Merits of Sensitivity Training

• Increased ability to empathize.

• Listening skills, openness, tolerance.

• Conflict resolution shills.

• Increased awareness of one’s own self and that of others: also gives an opportunity for introspection.

• Increased inter-personal competence in dealing with relationships and problem solving.

Demerits of Sensitivity Training

i) Participants may resort to their old habits after the training.

ii) With its emphasis on emotions and feelings it may lead to an inability in taking hard decisions.

iii) May lead to either excessive depression or a state of extreme excitement and anxiety.

3) Case Study : Under this technique the cases based on actual business situations are prepared and given to the trainee managers for discussion and arriving at a proper decision. Managers are given opportunity to find out the latent problems and suggest alternatives to tackle them. The selection of the best-alternative solution trainees have to suggest .This technique helps in improving the decision making skills by making:

Objectives of the Method

i) It can be used to stimulate an analytical, in-depth discussion with a view to presenting a multifaceted or an integrated perspective of the situation for better understanding, guidance and action of the participants. This will also help the participants develop a wider outlook of the situation and the issues that they are likely to face in their job situation.

ii) The case study method can help in deriving useful generalizations or principles regarding working in the field. Those can be related to a relevant theory, model or a body of knowledge.

iii) In many cases, the method is used as an exercise in decision making or problem-solving. It helps to develop the participant’s ability to think, decide and choose appropriate course(s) of action. He learns to respond to a situation or problem in the most appropriate way, taking into consideration all the incriminating circumstances, rather than going by a particular style of functioning or response.

iv) The case study method can help develop knowledge of skills in the participants that will help them to deal with a multitude of situation in their job that requires regular action or intervention.

v) As case study is embellished with description of people and situations taken from real life situations with which the participants are familiar and can even identify with, this method also promotes exploration and awareness of one’s attitudes, values and patterns of job or personal behavior.

vi) This method can be effective in enhancing the involvement of participants in the process of learning. Thus a greater responsibility is devolved on them for their own learning. They can learn in a relatively non-threatening and risk-free environment. This can help in their overall motivation for the programme.

Merits of Case Study Method

i) It enables the pooling of the experiences of a group of participants.

ii) It distributes Knowledge and facts.

iii) It promotes the process of synthesis of several concepts and principles into one multi- faceted explanation or plan of action.

iv) If improves participants skills in problem analysis and communication.

v) The case study method helps in group cooperation and improves interpersonal skills.

Demerits of Case Study Method

i) It is very time-consuming compared to more direct, expositive teaching methods.

ii) It requires the participants to engage in deep-processing of the general principles involved, through a process of reflection and abstraction and the promotion and control of this process, in tum, requires special skills and expert knowledge on the part of the trainer.

4) Vestibule Training : Vestibule training offers access to something new (learning) . A form of training in which new employees learn the job in a setting that approximates as closely as is practicable to the actual working environment. An example is the training of airline pilots in a simulated cockpit. This type of training is generally used when the use of actual equipment by untrained employees would be too risky or when the actual work setting would be unconducive to learning (i.e., because of noise levels).

Merits of Vestibule Training

i) The workers are trained as if on the job, but it did not interfere with the more vital task of production.

ii) Transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace was not required since the classroom was a model of the working environment.

iii) Classes are small so that the learners received immediate feedback and could ask questions more easily than in a large classroom.

Demerits of Vestibule Training

i) It's main disadvantage is that it is quite expensive as it duplicates the production line.

ii) It has a small learner to trainer ratio.

iii) It is difficult to create a factory conditions.

5) SIMULATION EXERCISES : Simulations are popular techniques of management development. In this technique a duplicate work situation similar to the actual job situation is created and the trainee is given a particular role to find out solutions to the problem and take decision. He gets a feedback of his performance. It sharpens the decision making quality of the trainee. It is costly method of management development.

Merits of Simulation Training

i) Simulation method represents a real life situation wherein a trainee’s decision results in outcomes that indicates what would happen if the trainee would have been on the job.

ii) Simulation training is suitable for cross-cultural relations, team building and empowerment and problem-solving in real work conditions.

iii) Trainees participate in reality –based, interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. It is a useful technique for skills development.

iv) It is a useful technique of skills development.

Demerits of simulation Training

i) This method is time-consuming.

ii) It requires a great deal of skill and practice on the part of trainers.

6) Management Games : Under this technique the trainee executives are divided into rival groups assuming the management of simulated companies. Each rival group has to discuss a given subject relating to production, marketing, pricing, etc., and arrive at a decision. The groups react to the decision of each other. They get immediate feedback on their performance. This technique helps in building team spirit among executives. This is followed in many Indian companies.

7) Managerial Grid : It is a multiphased programme ranging from three to five years. It improves managerial skills, intergroup relations and develops leadership styles.

8) Role playing : It is also a simulated exercise. The participations have to assume a role of a person in the simulated situation. They have to react to one another in the similar manner as they would be doing a job as manager in real situation. Participations are given ablest of learning points which they have to use during executive subordinate encounter. They can take the help of videos for improvement in management skills. Through this technique the human relations skills, marketing and sales management, interviewing skills are acquired.

According to Solem “Role –plays may be defined as a dynamic process that involves participants assuming specified roles and acting out significantly.”

Objectives of Role-Play

i) Role-play is a key training method for engendering behavioral changes. The actions behavior and interactions of the participants during the exercise from the basis of self-appraisal and feedback from others in the group. It permits the participants to receive objective feedback from other members of the group in a relatively non-threatening and risk free atmosphere.

ii) Role- play emphasizes the importance of understanding and appreciating other’s points of view, behavior and feelings. The exercise also provides opportunities to the participants to learn about different ways, other than their own, of responding to a particular situation or a problem. This in itself is a good learning. It also enhances their perception of others behavior, thus helping them in their interaction with other people, in job or life situations.

iii) It is also a training tool to improve the skills of the participants in the areas of problem solving and decision-making. They are able to develop better insight into the problems that they are likely to confront in their job situations and are exposed to different dimensions of these problems.

iv) The participants are also in a position to develop their negotiating skills through interaction within the sub-groups as well as in the larger group.

v) It provides a useful experience in self- expression and interpersonal communication and enhances interpersonal effectiveness. The method provides opportunities for introducing new stimuli and evoking new responses.

Merits of Role-play Method

i) One advantage is that the participants experience the roles directly either as players or as observers instead of studying the same theoretically.

ii) As a result of the direct experience, the participants develop certain skills which would otherwise be difficult to be developed through theoretical reading.

iii) Role-play method also helps in developing sensitivity and to acquire insight into the problems of human relations.

iv) Role-play method helps diagnosing problems in different situations where human beings interact.

v) Role-play method provides a safe learning environment.

vi) Role-play gives a change to the participants to experiment with new ideas.

Demerits of Role-Play Method

i) One disadvantage is that if the trainer is not clear about the instructional objectives and the suitability of the content to be treated through role-play and simply uses the method for the sake of using the method, it is bound to flop.

ii) The trainer has to prepare the role –briefs clearly and precisely.

iii) Selection of participants for the roles is also another tricky situation.

iv) Sometimes it so happens that the role-players fail to do the job effectively.

Comparison between Case Study Method and Role- Play

Case Study   Role-Play
This method samples the real life situation, revolving round scenarios and problems concerning organizations and individuals.   This method also samples the real-life situation, revolving round scenarios and problems concerning organizations and individuals.
Presents the problem for analysis and discussion.   Locates it in a life-like, interactive setting.
Focuses more on cognitive learning, and on thinking.   Locates it in a life- like, interactive setting.
There and then situation. Therefore, less involvement of the participants.   Typically emphasizes both cognitive and affective development on the part of learners. Thus, it focuses on thinking and doing.
There is some predictability about the discussion and the response of the participants.   Here and now situation. Therefore, greater involvement of the participants.
Emphasizes facts and situations and deals with analysis and responses.   Stresses the importance of behavior, reactions and feelings.


9) Computer Aided Instruction (CAI): This is an extension of programmed instruction. CAI is an improved system in at least three respects:

i) CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer.

ii) A CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained.

iii) This training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, and thus get training when they prefer.

It is a fact that feedback from CAI is as rich and colorful as modern electronic games complete with audio and visual displays. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost , but repeated use may justify the cost.

10) Incident Method : Under this technique the incidents based on real situation are prepared .Each participant is asked to study the incident and make decisions. Afterward, the group of participants makes discussion and arrives at a decision. This method develops the intellectual level, judgment of the participant. This technique was developed by Paul Pigors.

11) In Basket Method : Under this method a basket containing various kinds of correspondences such as reports letters, replies, applications each involving some problems is given to the trainee and within a specified time limit he has to sort out all the correspondence by passing orders, recommendations, delegating authority to his subordinates and distributing work etc. This resembles to real life situation. Through this method trainee learns the decision–making abilities. This is less expensive method.

12) Brain storming : Brain storming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. The method was first popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book called “Applied Imagination.” Osborn proposed that group could double their creative output with brainstorming.

Brainstorming is a process for developing creative solutions to problems. It works by focusing on a problem and then deliberately coming up with as many solutions as possible and by pushing the ideas as far as possible. One of the reason it is so effective is that the brain stormers not only come up with new ideas in a session, but also spark-off from associations with other people’s ideas by developing and refining them.

Brainstorming can be an effective way to generate lots of ideas on a specific issue and then determine which idea-or ideas- is/are the best solution. Brainstorming is most effective with groups of 8-12 people and should be performed in a relaxed environment. If participants feel free to relax and joke around, they’ll stretch their minds further and therefore produce more creative ideas.

Process of Brainstorming


i) Set the Problem : Before a brainstorming session, it is critical to define the problem. The problem must be clear, not too big and captured in a specific question such as “What service for mobile phones is not available now, but needed?. If the problem is too big, the facilitator should break it into smaller components, each with its own question. ii) Create a Background Memo : The background memo is the invitation and informational letter for the participants, containing the session name, problem, time , date and place. The problem is described in the form of a question and some example ideas are given. The memo is sent to the participants well in advance, so that they can think about the problem beforehand. iii) Select Participants : The facilitator composes the brainstorming panel, consisting of the participants and an idea collector. A group of 10 or fewer members is generally more productive. Many variations are possible but the following composition is suggested. a) Several core members of the project who have proved themselves.

b) Several guests from outside the project, with affinity to the problem.

c) One idea collector who records the suggested ideas.

iv) Create a List of Lead Questions : During the brainstorm session the creativity may decrease. At this moment, the facilitator should stimulate creativity by suggesting a lead question to answer, such as “can we combine these ideas “? Or “How about looking from another perspective”? It is best to prepare a list of such leads before the session begins.

v) Session conduct : The facilitator leads the brainstorming session and ensures that ground rules are followed. The steps in a typical sessions are:

a) A warm-up session, to expose novice participants to the criticism-free environment. A simple problem is brainstormed, e.g., what can be improved in Microsoft Windows?

b) The facilitator presents the problem and gives a further explanation if needed.

c) The facilitator asks the brainstorming group for their ideas.

d) If no ideas are forthcoming, the facilitator suggests a lead to encourage creativity.

e) All participants present their ideas and the idea collector records them.

f) To ensure clarity, participants may elaborate on their ideas.

g) When time is up, the facilitator organizes the ideas based on the topic goal and encourages discussion.

h) Ideas are categorized.

i) The whole list is reviewed to ensure that everyone understands the ideas.

j) Duplicate ideas and obviously infeasible infeasible solutions are removed.

k) The facilitator thanks all participants and gives each a token of appreciation.

Merits of Brainstorming Method


• Brainstorming creates an atmosphere for free expression of ideas.

• Brainstorming method helps to develop creativity in an individual.

• Brainstorming method is employed when a problematic situation requires a solution for which no readymade answer is available.

• Brainstorming process helps to develop the higher cognitive abilities of the participants.

• The method also helps to develop certain affect attributes like taking initiative by not becoming nervous, controlling emotions while discussing, etc.

• Another advantage is that the trainer does not have to depend upon gadgets or many co-trainers for completing the formalities of the method.

• Brainstorming method is most useful in case of any emergency situation where a quick and creative decision has to come from a group.

• Making seating arrangements for this method is not difficult.

Demerits of Brainstorming Methods


i) One disadvantage is that the content which is informative in nature cannot be taken up through brainstorming method.

ii) The method is not suitable for chronologically young ones.

iii) A dynamic trainer who knows the modus operandi of a brainstorming method is essential to employ the method successfully.

iv) Without a proper and effective recording, the method is bound to fail.

v) Another disadvantage in brainstorming method is that it is very difficult initially to convince the participants that they can speak freely.

vi) Normally a brainstorming session does not prescribe any advance preparation through related literature.

vii) The method also does not suggest references for further reading on the topic discussed.

13) Field Trip : A fieldtrip or fieldwork is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment. The purpose of the trip is usually observation for education, non-experimental research or to provide students with experiences outside their everyday activities. The aim of this research is to observe the subject in its natural state and possibly collect samples. It provides an understanding of the activities, the working procedures or the management processes of an organization, depending on the objectives set out for a trip. It enables the participant to interact with a real field setting or situation, leading to direct learning.

Merits of Fieldtrip Method

i) One advantage is that it gives practical experience to the participants where they learn from direct experience.

ii) Field method provides a favorable change from the monotonous theoretical sessions in the classroom.

iii) Participants while working in small groups or even individually are interdependent in the work setting and thereby they develop team spirit to work.

iv) Another advantage of fieldtrip is that the input which cannot be dealt with theoretically in classroom situation but require practical experience outside, can be taken up only through fieldtrip.

v) Inputs taken up through fieldtrip supplement the learning in the classroom theoretical sessions.

vi) Reports writing in the fieldtrip method train the participants in systematic presentation of relevant data.

vii) The participants learn to systematically collect relevant data, analyze them by employing suitable statistical techniques.

Demerits of Fieldtrip Method:

i) One of the disadvantages is that the academic work is hampered by the disturbance in any of the non-academic arrangements.

ii) It expects very high coordination ability from the trainer.

iii) Fieldtrip is no doubt expensive.

iv) Another disadvantage of this method is that all participants have to go out to the field for study.

V) If the participants consider the visit for fieldtrip as an outing for complete relaxation and entertainment, the instructional objectives of the input can never be achieved.

vi) Sometimes it appears that more than one trainer will be needed to manage the fieldtrip.

vii) If the fieldtrip is kept in the middle of the programme duration instead of keeping towards the end, the activities of the method may disturb the inputs following the completion of the fieldtrip.

14) Demonstration : The dictionary meaning of the word “demonstration” is the outward showing of a feeling, etc. a description and explanation by experiment; so also logically to prove the truth; or a practical display of a piece of equipment to show its display of a piece of equipment to show its display of a piece of equipment to show its display of a piece of equipment to show its capabilities. In short it is a proof provided by logic, argument ,etc. Demonstration is a physical display of the form, outline or a substance of objects or events. For the purpose of increasing knowledge of such objects or events. Demonstration involves “showing what or showing how.” Demonstration is relatively uncomplicated process which does not require extensive verbal elaboration. When new products and equipment’s are being introduced then demonstrations are excellent.

Demonstration Process

The demonstration is an instructional method in which an instructor shows and explains. Demonstrations may be used to enrich and increase the learner’s understanding. It is important for the instructor to realize that there is more to the demonstration method than showing. The effective demonstration involves telling, showing, questioning and application. When skill development is the desired outcome, practice must be included as a major component of the method.
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